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 on: Today at 05:18 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
CS Monitor

Did our planet once have more than two magnetic poles?

A new study suggests our planet's magnetic field may not have always been oriented along one axis with two poles.

By Simone McCarthy, Staff June 28, 2016   

The Earth as we know it would be very different without its magnetic field.

Generated by the movement of molten iron within the Earth’s core, the geomagnetic field emanates into space, creating a magnetosphere that acts as a shield for our atmosphere, for instance, by protecting the Earth from solar winds that would tear up the ozone.

And while the Earth's magnetic field is complex, most of us take for granted that this vast, invisible planet-protector is situated along an axis running approximately from the North Pole to the South Pole, in what scientists call a dipole field.

A paper published this month, in Geophysical Research Letters, however, paints a radically different picture of the ancient Earth's geomagnetic field, suggesting that at one point, 500 million to 1 billion years ago, Earth had multiple poles.

"What I found was a surprising amount of variability," said scientist Peter Driscoll of Carnegie Institution for Science's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in a statement. "These new models do not support the assumption of a stable dipole field at all times, contrary to what we'd previously believed."

Tracking the history of an invisible field over billions of years is less impossible than it sounds. Indicators for how the magnetic field functions are found in the earth itself.

Humans first began to understand the planet’s magnetization by noticing the position in which magnetic minerals naturally occurred. Thousands of years ago, Chinese scholars found that there was a north-south orientation to the way that magnetic materials were found. They harnessed this finding for early compasses.

In 1600, English scientist William Gilbert put this geological finding in context: he theorized that the Earth has a magnetic field along a north/south axis.

But there is an exception to this apparent fact of nature: at one point in the geological record, some 600 to 700 million years ago, these mineral traces appear not to behave as they would have in a traditional dipole world, aligning north to south. The record shows "bizarre fluctuations," says Driscoll.

By why? And why at that specific moment in history?

Driscoll attempted to address this question by looking deeper into the earth – right to its inner core, which produces one of the dynamic forces that forms the magnetic field. Driscoll created models which track 4.5 billion years of the earth's thermal history, essentially mapping out the evolution of the earth's inner core.

What he found is that around the same time as the magnetic abnormalities in the geological record, the Earth’s molten core was beginning to harden, and the planet's magnetic field may have changed as a result. Instead of a strong dipolar field, these changing core dynamics potentially created numerous poles and a weakened magnetic field around the earth.

This period would have occurred between 500 million to 1 billion years ago, during the Neoproterozoic Era, writes Popular Mechanics. The finding appears to match geological record, which registers the fluctuations in magnetic materials around 600 to 700 million years ago.

And once the core solidified, somewhere around 650 million years ago, Driscoll proposes, the dipole structure returned.

More research and comparison with the geological record is needed to confirm Driscoll's findings, but this study may spark others that help us understand both the ancient earth and the modern one. 


Archaeologists discover 1,000-year-old weak spot in Earth's magnetic field

Patches of ground in southern Africa where huts were once burned down reveal surprising clues about the history – and future – of our planet's geomagnetic shield.

By Sarah Lewin, July 30, 2015   

The fiery demise of ancient huts in southern Africa 1,000 years ago left clues to understanding a bizarre weak spot in the Earth's magnetic field — and the role it plays in the magnetic poles' periodic reversals.

Patches of ground where huts were burned down in southern Africa contain a key mineral that recorded the magnetic field at the time of each ritual burning. Those mineral records teach researchers more about a weird, weak patch of Earth's magnetic field called the South Atlantic Anomaly and point the way toward a possible mechanism for sudden reversals of the field.

"It has long been thought reversals start at random locations, but our study suggests this may not be the case," John Tarduno, a geophysicist from the University of Rochester in New York and lead author of the paper, said in a statement.

Tarduno told in an interview that data from the huts suggest that the strange weak patch "forms, and it decays away, and it forms, and it decays away; eventually, one might form and get really large, and then we might actually have a geomagnetic reversal."

The South Atlantic Anomaly is a dent in Earth's shield against cosmic radiation, 124 miles above the ground (200 kilometers). It may be the most dangerous place in the Earth's sphere for satellites and spacecraft to traverse, because anything electronic traveling through it is vulnerable to strong radiation from space and tends to malfunction.

Even the Hubble Space Telescope takes no measurements when passing over  the anomaly. It's an area where, instead of pointing outward, part of the Earth's magnetic field actually ushers energetic particles down instead of repelling them, weakening the overall field in the area. And it has been growing.

"Some have postulated that the Earth's magnetic field is leaking out the wrong way at that particular spot," Rory Cottrell, a geologist also at the University of Rochester and co-author of the new paper, told "One theory is that changes in the South Atlantic Anomaly could be responsible for the decrease in the overall magnetic field that we're seeing, because these patches are growing or changing over time."

Many researchers have speculated that this kind of anomaly is temporary, caused by changes of flow within the Earth's outer, iron core, which generates the planet's magnetic field. Such anomalies, in weakening the magnetic field, may bring the Earth closer to a magnetic reversal — when the magnetic north and south poles on Earth switch places, rearranging the magnetic field over the course of 1,000 to 10,000 years (although it can happen faster). The process generally happens every 200,000 to 300,000 years, after the magnetic field weakens enough, but the last magnetic-field reversal occurred 780,000 years ago.

The new data from the African burnings suggests that the South Atlantic Anomaly was up to its same field-weakening tricks over 1,000 years ago; if it's caused by something permanent near the Earth's core, it might play an important role in the Earth's magnetic-pole reversals.
Burn it all down

Modern magnetic records only stretch back for the past 150 years or so, and within that time frame, researchers have seen the Earth's magnetic field rapidly decrease in intensity. But the researchers used the Iron Age remnants of African villages to extend their view even further back, from A.D. 1,000 to A.D. 1,850 — and the record reveals that the South Atlantic Anomaly was going strong at that time, too.
Throughout that time, the inhabitants of ancient African villages would burn down the huts and grain bins in their villages on a regular basis, giving scientists key, consistent data throughout that time period.

"They had this ritualistic burning of villages," Tarduno told "Particularly in times of drought, the conclusion would be that there might have been some offence in the village, so the solution was to have a burning down of the village." The process was intended to cleanse the village, their collaborator archaeologist Thomas Huffman, from Witwatersrand University in South Africa, said in the statement.

At the very least, it cleansed the ground: The burning villages would reach temperatures of over 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit (1,000 degrees Celsius), which would melt the magnetic compounds like magnetite in the clay floors. The magnetite would become remagnetized by the Earth's magnetic field at the precise instant it cooled, ready to be analyzed centuries later.

"The hut floors are actually very good magnetic recorders," Tarduno said. "Sort of like minimagnetic observatories back in time."

Researchers had obtained very little historical data in the southern hemisphere, and none in southern Africa before these findings. The new baked-clay records revealed an eerily familiar picture of the Earth's magnetic field: Just like today, the Earth's magnetic field at the time was steadily weakening, with a focus on that same South Atlantic Anomaly. The effect did not appear to be continuous, but rather seemed to be a recurring event in that part of the globe, whose weakening power comes and goes over time.

Digging deeper

To Tarduno's group, that consistently recurring spot of weakening suggests that a permanent feature deep below the Earth's surface may be generating the South Atlantic Anomaly and might therefore play a role in the reversal of the Earth's magnetic field.

That feature is a section of particularly hot and dense mantle rock just above the Earth's outer core. The section is 1,860 miles (3,000 km) below southern Africa and the Atlantic, and it's about as wide as the distance between New York and Paris. Scientists call it the Large Low Shear Velocity Province, and Tarduno's group suspects that its sharp boundaries might disrupt the flow of iron within the Earth's core, creating a strange, field-weakening eddy that could lead to reversals time and time again.

The researchers' model is only one of many theories about magnetic pole reversal, and they're focusing on refining the mathematics and gathering more, even earlier data from southern Africa to further track the weak spot.

"No one knows what causes reversals, and there is no agreement on whether we can ever even find convincing evidence to forecast a reversal," Ron Merrill, a geophysicist from the University of Washington, who was not involved in the study, told in an email.

While the new magnetic field records in Africa are useful in their own right, he wrote, it will take much more testing and theory to make a solid connection between the feature near the Earth's core and the magnetic field's weakening and reversal (and the long-lasting nature of the South Atlantic Anomaly).

The new research can't predict the next magnetic field reversal, but finding a connection between the ancient irregularity near the Earth's core and a weakening magnetic field would be one more step toward deciphering the incredibly complex magnetic system that protects humanity from the harsh radiation of space.


Could Earth's magnetic poles suddenly flip?

Scientists have found that the most recent reversal of the Earth's magnetic poles took only about 100 years. What's more, our planet's magnetic fields appear to be weakening, suggesting a flip is on its way.

By Kelly Dickerson, LiveScience Staff Writer October 21, 2014   

A pilot looking down at her plane controls and realizing magnetic north is hovering somewhere over Antarctica may sound like a scene from a science-fiction movie, but new research suggests the idea isn't so far-fetched in the relatively near future.

A magnetic field shift is old news. Around 800,000 years ago, magnetic north hovered over Antarctica and reindeer lived in magnetic south. The poles have flipped several times throughout Earth's history. Scientists have estimated that a flip cycle starts with the magnetic field weakening over the span of a few thousand years, then the poles flip and the field springs back up to full strength again. However, a new study shows that the last time the Earth's poles flipped, it only took 100 years for the reversal to happen.

The Earth's magnetic field is in a weakening stage right now. Data collected this summer by a European Space Agency (ESA) satellite suggests the field is weakening 10 times faster than scientists originally thought. They predicted a flip could come within the next couple thousand years. It turns out that might be a very liberal estimate, scientists now say. [Infographic: Explore Earth's Atmosphere Top to Bottom]

"We don't know whether the next reversal will occur as suddenly as this [previous] one did, but we also don't know that it won't," Paul Renne, director of the Geochronology Center at the University of California, Berkeley, said in a statement.

Geologists still are not sure what causes the planet's magnetic field to flip direction. Earth's iron core acts like a giant magnet and generates the magnetic field that envelops the planet. This helps protect against blasts of radiation that erupt from the sun and sometimes hurtle toward Earth. A weakening magnetic field could interrupt power grids and radio communication, and douse the planet in unusually high levels of radiation.

While the ESA satellite studied the magnetic field from above, Renne and a team of researchers studied it from below. The researchers dug through ancient lake sediments exposed at the base of the Apennine Mountains in Italy. Ash layers from long-ago volcanic eruptions are mixed into the sediment. The ash is made of magnetically sensitive minerals that hold traces of Earth's magnetic field lines, and the researchers were able to measure the direction the field was pointing.

Renne and colleagues then used a technique called argon-argon dating — which works because radioactive potassium-40 decays into argon-40 at a known rate — to determine the age of the rock sediment. The layers built up over a 10,000-year period, and the researchers could pinpoint where the poles flipped in the rock layers. The last flip happened around 786,000 years ago.

Sudden swap

The sediment layers also showed the magnetic field was unstable for about 6,000 years before the abrupt flip-flop. The period of instability included two low points in the field's strength, each of which lasted about 2,000 years.

Geologists don't know where the magnetic field is now in that reversal timescale or if this flip will even follow the same pattern as the last. The bottom line is that no one is sure when it's coming.

"We don't really know whether the next reversal is going to resemble the last one, so it's impossible to say whether we're just seeing the first of possibly several excursions (slight movements), or a true reversal," Renne told Live Science in an email.

Magnetic doomsday?

While a pole flip could cause a few technical issues, there's no need to panic. Scientists have combed the geological timeline for any evidence of catastrophes that might be related to a magnetic flip. They haven't found any.

The only havoc that a reversal would wreak is interference in the global electric grid. No direct evidence remains of past catastrophes triggered by a magnetic flip.

However, if the magnetic field weakens enough or temporarily disappears during the flip, then the Earth could be hit with dangerous amounts of solar radiation and cosmic rays. The exposure could mean that more people develop cancer, Renne said, though there's no scientific proof this could happen.

Renne said more research is needed to understand the possible consequences of a shifting magnetic pole.

The new study will be published in the November issue of the Geophysical Journal International.

 on: Today at 05:11 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
CS Monitor

Is Jeff Bezos's secretive rocket company coming out of the shadows?

Blue Origin's new Florida facility will enable it to move from suborbital flight to orbital flight, making it more competitive with companies like SpaceX.

By Christina Beck, Staff June 29, 2016   

Aerospace manufacturing company Blue Origin announced yesterday in an email that it has broken ground on a new factory in Florida.

The 750,000 square foot factory will manufacture and test Blue Origin’s orbital rockets.

"It’s exciting to see the bulldozers in action," wrote founder Jeff Bezos in an email to reporters. "We’re clearing the way for the production of a reusable fleet of orbital vehicles that we will launch and land, again and again."

Blue Origin, known for its secrecy, emerged from the shadows on June 19 to announce that it had tested its fourth reusable rocket. That launch also marked the first time Blue Origin offered a live webcast of the launch event for space afficionados. Competitor SpaceX has webcasted many of its launch events.

The June 19 launch saw Blue Origin’s uncrewed New Shepherd rocket and space capsule both return to Earth unharmed after a brief trip to suborbital space. The New Shepherd is not designed to go into orbit, but to carry space tourists to suborbital space.

Mr. Bezos announced this week that all parts of the company’s orbital rocket, except the engine, will be manufactured in the new Florida facility. The engine, called the BE-4, is being developed in conjunction with the United Launch Alliance at Blue Origin’s home facility in Kent, Wash. – for now.

“Initial BE-4 engine production will occur at our Kent facility while we conduct a site selection process later this year for a larger engine production facility to accommodate higher production rates.”
Pushing into space

Until now, Blue Origin has focused on developing and testing suborbital rockets. This new facility will allow the company to explore orbital flight.

Orbital launches are harder, but they would allow Blue Origin to get into the satellite launch business, something that its competitor SpaceX has been doing for some time.

Last September, speculated that Blue Origin’s decision to build a new facility in Florida would force the traditionally secretive company into the spotlight.

Until recently, Blue Origin had been launching rockets from a private launch facility in Texas. September’s announcement, however, was paired with the company’s decision to move launches to the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, also in Florida.

In March, Bezos personally led a several-hour tour of Blue Origin’s Kent facility, giving reporters an unprecedented inside view into the company’s operations.

During the tour, Bezos discussed the company’s BE-4 engine development and the company’s attempt to end American rocket dependence on Russian RD-180 engines.

It remains to be seen whether Blue Origin’s recent openness represents a thaw in its traditional secrecy or a brief aberration, but one thing is clear: constructing a rocket-building facility in the heart of traditional space launch territory means the company will have a harder time keeping developments quiet.

Construction on Blue Origin’s Florida facility should be completed by December, 2017.

 on: Today at 05:07 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 29, 2016

Fire use discovery sheds light on the demise of the ‘hobbits’

by Chuck Bednar
Red Orbit

In a discovery that could help explain how and why Homo floresiensis, the extinct species also known as the hobbits, disappeared approximately 50,000 years ago, researchers have discovered that modern humans had been using fire in Indonesia far earlier than previously believed.

First discovered at the Liang Bua site on the island of Flores in 2003 and given their nickname because of their small stature, Homo floresiensis was a group of hominids believed to have been part of the same genus as modern humans (Homo sapiens). Currently, scientists believe that the original specimen dates back to between 190,000 and 60,000 years ago.

Previous estimates had suggested that the species survived on Flores until as recently as 12,000 years ago, and with the most recent stone tools dating back to just 50,000 years ago, there is now a period lasting from 46,000 years ago to 20,000 years ago during which researchers are not sure what took place there. The new study, which was published in the June 30 edition of the Journal of Archaeological Science, could provide some clues that will help solve the mystery.

“We now know that the hobbits only survived until around 50,000 years ago at Liang Bua. We also know that modern humans arrived in Southeast Asia and Australia at least 50,000 years ago, and most likely quite a bit earlier,” lead author Dr. Mike Morley, a geoarchaeologist and research fellow at the University of Wollongong Australia’s Centre for Archaeological Science, said in a statement. “This new evidence, which is some of the earliest evidence of modern human activity in Southeast Asia, narrows the gap between the two hominin species at the site.”

Findings ‘extremely important’ in the quest for answers

In their new study, Dr. Morley and colleagues from UOW and the National Research Centre for Archaeology in Indonesia analyzed environmental changes that took place at Liang Bua between 190,000 and 20,000 years ago and found evidence of fire places which they believe were used by modern humans for warmth and to cook food between 41,000 and 24,000 years ago.

Since there has been no evidence discovered to date that Homo floresiensis ever used fire during its 130,000 years living at the site, the study authors believe that this is evidence of early modern human activity during this period, which Dr. Morley noted could be “extremely important” when it comes to the search to discover exactly what exactly led to the extinction of the hobbits.

As he explained, “finding the fire places in such an excellent state of preservation allows insights into the behavior of these people.” He and his colleagues said that they plan to continue hunting for additional evidence that will further narrow the time gap, and which could ultimately put our direct ancestors in the same place and time as the hobbits, possibly leading to the discovery of an interaction between the two species that could have led to the downfall of Homo floresiensis.

Their findings also provide further proof of the dispersal of Homo sapiens throughout southeast Asia and into Australia approximately 50,000 years ago, and they come just a few weeks after a team of scientists from UOW reported on the discovery of 700,000 year old fossils that they believed belonged to an ancestor of Homo floresiensis, the researchers noted.

 on: Today at 05:01 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 29, 2016

Team finds three new ‘hot Jupiter’ exoplanets

by Susanna Pilny
Red Orbit

It looks like new Olympians need to be added to the pantheon, because three new exoplanets belonging to the “hot Jupiter” family have just been discovered by an international team of astronomers, according to a new paper on arXiv.

The planets—named Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b—were identified by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES), which is operated by the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) run out of Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU) in Doha, Qatar. The survey involved a robotic wide-field camera system in New Mexico to trawl the universe searching for gas giants as they transit (cross in front of) their host stars, according to

And so far, this system has yielded results—in 2010 and 2011, it detected Qatar-1b and Qatar-2b, and now have come out again with the three new exoplanets.

After the international team—which is led by Khalid Al-Subai, QEERI's acting executive director—made the most recent discoveries, they quickly deployed the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona and the four-foot (1.23 m) Zeiss Telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain in order to determine the physical characteristics of the planets.
Detailing the characteristics of the new planets

They discovered that all three are what are known as “hot Jupiters,” or gas giants that have similar characteristics to Jupiter. This class of planet orbits around its central star in less than 10 days and logically have extremely high surface temperatures since they are so close to their parent stars. For these three exoplanets, temperatures range from 1400 K (2060 F, or 1130 C) to 1700 K (2600 F, or 1430 C).

Of the three, Qatar-4b is the biggest and most massive—its radius is about 1.55 times that of Jupiter, and it’s nearly six times more massive. Further, it completes an orbit around its host star in 1.8 days.

Qatar-3b and Qatar-4b are smaller with a similar size and mass. Both have radii 1.1 times that of Jupiter and have about 4.3 times the mass. The main difference between the two is the length of their orbits; Qatar-3b takes two and a half days, while Qatar-5b takes about three.

All in all, this study shows the value of ground-based surveys like QES and has helped create a fuller picture of the hot Jupiter family. With luck, more work will be done in this manner that will help fill in more gaps, such as the origin of hot Jupiters and the architecture of their planetary systems.

 on: Today at 04:59 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 30, 2016

Researchers discover complex organic molecules in ring around planet

by Chuck Bednar
Red Orbit

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a group of researchers has for the first time identified a ring-shaped structure of complex organic molecules surrounding a newborn star – a discovery the report in the latest edition of The Astrophysical Journal.

While astronomers have long known that these molecules form in diffuse gas clouds which float in interstellar space, and believe that some of them were transported from this space between the stars into our solar system’s planet-forming disk about 4.6 billion years ago, the exact kinds and amounts of molecules originating from interstellar space remained a mystery.

However, those molecules, which include methanol (CH3OH) and methyl formate (HCOOCH3), played a vital role in the chemical evolution that ultimately resulted in the rise of life on Earth. In recent years, radio astronomy observatories have shown that such organic molecules exist around Solar-type protostars, but until now, those instruments were unable to resolve their distributions.

Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo and the RIKEN research institute used ALMA to analyze the distribution of different organic molecules around IRAS 16293-2422A, a Solar-type protostar located in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex, at a high-spatial resolution and discovered a that the object was surrounded by a ring of organic molecules 50 times the size of Earth’s orbit.

Findings show that how materials reach planetary systems differ

The size of the ring, they explained in a statement, is comparable to the size of the Solar System and the ring structure is believed to represent the boundary region separating infalling gas from a rotating disk-like structure around the protostar. During their observations, they clearly spotted a large concentration of both methyl formate and carbonyl sulfide (OCS).

They measured the motion of gas containing HCOOCH3 using the Doppler effect, and found “a clear rotation motion specific to the ring structure,” said Yoko Oya, a graduate student in physics at the University of Tokyo. The distribution of methyl formate around the protostar seems to be limited to a more confined region than the OCS distribution, which is primarily used to trace the infalling gases and which Oya’s team used to identify the HCOOCH3 and methanol.

According to the study authors, these saturated organic molecules originate in interstellar space and are preserved on the surfaces of dust grains. Once they reach the outer boundary of the disk, the shock created by collisions between the disk and infalling matter, combined with heating by the protostar’s light, causes the molecules to evaporate.

The new study provides the first direct evidence that organic materials from interstellar space do actually contribute to the formation of a planetary system by entering the rotating disk structures from which those systems originate. Combined with earlier research by the same team, in which they discovered a similar ring of sulfur monoxide around another Solar-type protostar, the paper demonstrates that the method through which materials are delivered to a planetary system differ from star to star, and could alter our understanding of how life originated here on Earth.

 on: Today at 04:51 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 30, 2016

Human activity created a new mosquito species, study shows

by Brett Smith
Red Orbit

We know species around the planet are going extinct due to human activities, but humans are also triggering the rapid development and emergence of new species, according to a new report.

Published in Proceedings of Royal Society B, the new study summarizes the cause of manmade speciation and talks about why newly evolved species can't just replace extinct wild species.

Many examples show humans can drive evolution via mechanisms like accidental introductions, domestication of animals and crops, unnatural selection due to hunting, or the emergence of novel ecosystems like urban centers.

“The prospect of ‘artificially’ gaining novel species through human activities is unlikely to elicit the feeling that it can offset losses of ‘natural’ species. Indeed, many people might find the prospect of an artificially biodiverse world just as daunting as an artificially impoverished one” study author Joseph Bull from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate at the University of Copenhagen, said in a news release.

Creating a new mosquito species

In one example of manmade evolution, the standard house mosquito has adapted to the ecosystem of the subway system in London and established a subterranean population. Now known as the ‘London Underground mosquito’, it can't interbreed with its surface counterpart and is essentially regarded as a new species.

“We also see examples of domestication resulting in new species. According to a recent study, at least six of the world’s 40 most important agricultural crops are considered entirely new” Bull said.

Moreover, unnatural selection because of hunting can lead to new attributes emerging in animals, which may ultimately lead to new species. Planned accidental transfer of species can also result in hybridization with other species. As a result of latter, countless new plant species have appeared in Europe and gone extinct over the last three centuries.

While we cannot quantify just how many speciation events have been triggered by human activities, the effect is potentially considerable, the study team said.

“In this context, ‘number of species’ becomes a deeply unsatisfactory measure of conservation trends, because it does not reflect many important aspects of biodiversity,” said study author Martine Maron, an associate professor of ecology from the University of Queensland. “Achieving a neutral net outcome for species numbers cannot be considered acceptable if weighing wild fauna against relatively homogenous domesticated species. However, considering speciation alongside extinction may well prove important in developing a better understanding of our impact upon global biodiversity.”

 on: Today at 03:19 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by marty
hi all,

   Could I ask about S.N. Venus in the 6th house in Aries? (6th hs. ruled by Pisces). Could this be an individual who has been experiencing past lives of devotion and God's work (service to others), and has been coming to the realization that they don't have to belittle themselves or suffer or feel guilt in order to be in relationship with Creator?

   It seems to me that their S.N. Venus would evolve thru fits and starts - sudden instinctual reactions that would propel themselves toward self-forgiveness and self-love. Once these self-revelations begin, it seems like the individual would continually challenge themselves toward spiritual exploration and a completely renewed sense of self in relationship to Creator. They would have wanted to reincarnate, this lifetime, to complete this revelation, and to summon strength to encourage others to seek this freedom of thought, etc.

   In this new-found relationship between themselves and Creator, it would instill self-confidence in the individual to begin the process of inspiring others to challenge pre-existing belief patterns and 'old tapes'.

   Sometimes when I see a similar signature, I think that the individual may have experienced religious persecution in a past-life, and it's safe to be born now.

   Thank you for your response.


 on: Jun 29, 2016, 05:49 PM 
Started by Gonzalo - Last post by Gonzalo
Aviso que estaré fuera durante unos días. Retomo los posts de este tópico la próxima semana.

 on: Jun 29, 2016, 07:57 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Zika virus vaccine for animals brings hope for human protection

Trial version in US giving successful immunisation to mice could help fight disease, but complications warned for those who have contracted dengue fever

Ian Sample Science editor
Tuesday 28 June 2016 16.00 BST

An experimental vaccine that completely protects animals from the Zika virus has raised hopes for a jab that can bring the fast-spreading disease under control.

Trials in the US found that a single immunisation shot made from a purified and inactivated form of the Zika virus gave mice total protection against the illness that has swept through Brazil and other parts of South America.

The race is now on to convert this early success into an effective human vaccine, but that may not be straightforward. The similarity of the Zika virus to others in circulation means the vaccine may prove less effective in some people, and could potentially make other infections, such as dengue fever, more serious. Those concerns will almost certainly have to be addressed before human trials can begin.

Dan Barouch, who led the study at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, called the trial results “a step forwards in the development of a Zika virus vaccine”, but said more research lay ahead. “Of course we need to be cautious about extrapolating results from mice into humans,” he said.

The vaccine is one of a number that have been under development as a top priority since the World Health Organisation in February declared the Zika epidemic a global public health emergency. Mosquitoes in more than 60 countries now carry the virus linked to severe birth defects and a paralysing neurological disorder called Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Writing in the journal, Nature, Barouch and colleagues describe how they tested two experimental Zika vaccines in mice. The first, known as a DNA vaccine, was made from genetic material taken from Zika virus circulating in the Brazil outbreak. The second was a more conventional vaccine, made from whole inactivated Zika virus in Puerto Rico. Both vaccines protected mice for at least two months.

“We were very surprised and quite impressed that a single shot of either one of these vaccines provided complete protection,” said Barouch. Tests are now underway to understand how long the vaccines are effective for, and whether boosters can extend the protection they offer.

Human testing of experimental Zika vaccine to begin..Read more:

Scientists have found it difficult to make DNA vaccines work in humans and none have ever been approved for use by the US regulatory authorities. For this reason, the second vaccine may prove easier to bring to market because it draws on conventional vaccine technology.

However, significant hurdles remain. Last week, researchers at Imperial College in London showed that previous exposure to dengue virus could potentially worsen Zika infections. If the reverse is also true, as some scientists suspect, a vaccine that causes the immune system to produce antibodies against Zika virus could inadvertently make dengue infections more life-threatening.

“We know that dengue circulates in the same parts of the world as Zika, and what you don’t want to do is go around and give a vaccine that makes another viral infection much worse and potentially fatal,” said Jonathan Ball, professor of molecular virology at the University of Nottingham.

The problem arises because the Zika and dengue viruses are so genetically similar that the immune system cannot always differentiate between them. When a person who has previously had dengue catches the Zika virus, the immune system may attempt to fight the new infection with “old” antibodies raised against dengue virus. Instead of wiping out the invading Zika viruses, the antibodies merely latch on and draw them into cells, helping them to replicate and spread.

For the same reason, a person who has had dengue in the past may have antibodies in their system that attack the Zika vaccine as soon as it is administered. If that happened, their body might swiftly wipe out the vaccine before it has a chance to make fresh antibodies against Zika virus.

Despite the hurdles, Ball said the results are still encouraging. Other vaccines that target flavivirus, the group of viruses that include Zika and dengue, are already effective, notably for yellow fever, and for Japanese encephalitis virus and the tick-borne encephalitis virus, which can cause the brain to swell.

“These studies are a good step forward and give reason to be optimistic that vaccines might work in people,” said Peter Openshaw, professor of experimental medicine at Imperial College London. “However, it is essential to move to human studies as soon as possible. By the time human vaccines are ready, many of the vulnerable population will have already been naturally infected. The purpose of vaccination will presumably be to protect travellers and those wishing to become pregnant. It will be vital to see how vaccines will work in such situations and how the practical and economic barriers to vaccine deployment can be overcome.”

 on: Jun 29, 2016, 06:39 AM 
Started by frespana - Last post by Rad
Hi frespana,

First, welcome to the message board. There is no one meaning in the question you are asking. The total chart of an individual must be understood first, as well as the individual in which synastry is taking place. This then gives the total individual context for each. It is that total individual context that then becomes the basis of understanding, correctly, the meaning of having one's Pluto on the S.Node of the Moon in anothers chart, or visa versa. There are various threads on relationships on the mb through which you can learn all about this if you are interested.

God Bless, Rad

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