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 21 
 on: Mar 01, 2015, 07:00 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Hunting with wolves: How humans outlasted the Neanderthals

Robin McKie, The Observer
28 Feb 2015 at 21:27 ET

Dogs are humanity’s oldest friends, renowned for their loyalty and abilities to guard, hunt and chase. But modern humans may owe even more to them than we previously realised. We may have to thank them for helping us eradicate our caveman rivals, the Neanderthals.

According to a leading US anthropologist, early dogs, bred from wolves, played a critical role in the modern human’s takeover of Europe 40,000 years ago when we vanquished the Neanderthal locals.

“At that time, modern humans, Neanderthals and wolves were all top predators and competed to kill mammoths and other huge herbivores,” says Professor Pat Shipman, of Pennsylvania State University. “But then we formed an alliance with the wolf and that would have been the end for the Neanderthal.”

If Shipman is right, she will have solved one of evolution’s most intriguing mysteries. Modern humans are known to have evolved in Africa. They began to emigrate around 70,000 years ago, reaching Europe 25,000 years later. The continent was then dominated by our evolutionary cousins, the Neanderthals, who had lived there for more than 200,000 years. However, within a few thousand years of our arrival, they disappeared.

The question is: what finished them off? Some scientists blame climate change. Most argue that modern humans – armed with superior skills and weapons – were responsible. Shipman agrees with the latter scenario, but adds a twist. We had an accomplice: the wolf.

Modern humans formed an alliance with wolves soon after we entered Europe, argues Shipman. We tamed some and the dogs we bred from them were then used to chase prey and to drive off rival carnivores, including lions and leopards, that tried to steal the meat.

“Early wolf-dogs would have tracked and harassed animals like elk and bison and would have hounded them until they tired,” said Shipman. “Then humans would have killed them with spears or bows and arrows.

“This meant the dogs did not need to approach these large cornered animals to finish them off – often the most dangerous part of a hunt – while humans didn’t have to expend energy in tracking and wearing down prey. Dogs would have done that. Then we shared the meat. It was a win-win situation.”

At that time, the European landscape was dominated by mammoths, rhinos, bison and several other large herbivores. Both Neanderthals and modern humans hunted them with spears and possibly bows and arrows. It would have been a tricky business made worse by competition from lions, leopards, hyenas, and other carnivores, including wolves.

“Even if you brought down a bison, within minutes other carnivores would have been lining up to attack you and steal your prey,” said Shipman. The answer, she argues, was the creation of the human-wolf alliance. Previously they separately hunted the same creatures, with mixed results. Once they joined forces, they dominated the food chain in prehistoric Europe – though this success came at a price for other species. First Neanderthals disappeared to be followed by lions, mammoths, hyenas and bison over the succeeding millennia. Humans and hunting dogs were, and still are, a deadly combination, says Shipman.

The idea is controversial, however, because it pushes back the origins of dog domestication so deeply into our past. Most scientists had previously argued the domestication of dogs, from tamed wolves, began with the rise of agriculture, 10,000 years ago, though other research has suggested it began earlier, around 15,000 years ago.

But Shipman places it before the last Ice Age, pointing to recent discoveries of 33,000-year-old fossil remains of dogs in Siberia and Belgium. Although they look quite like wolves, the fossils also show clear signs of domestication: snouts that are shorter, jaws that are wider and teeth that are more crowded than those of a wild wolf.

Thus we began to change the wolf’s appearance and over the millennia turned them into all the breeds of dog we have today, from corgis to great Danes. Intriguingly, they may have changed our appearances as well, says Shipman, whose book, The Invaders: How Humans and Their Dogs Drove Neanderthals to Extinction , will be published this month. Consider the whites of our eyes, she states. The wolf possesses white sclera as does Homo sapiens though, crucially, it is the only primate that has them.

“The main advantage of having white sclera is that it is very easy to work out what another person is gazing at,” added Shipman. “It provides a very useful form of non-verbal communication and would have been of immense help to early hunters. They would been able to communicate silently but very effectively.”

Thus the mutation conferring white sclera could have become increasingly common among modern humans 40,000 years ago and would have conferred an advantage on those who were hunting with dogs.

By contrast, there is no evidence of any kind that Neanderthals had any relationship with dogs and instead they appear to have continued to hunt mammoths and elks on their own, a punishing method for acquiring food. Already stressed by the arrival of modern humans in Europe, our alliance with wolves would have been the final straw for Neanderthals.

Nor does the story stop in Europe, added Shipman. “I would see this as the beginning of the humans’ long invasion of the world. We took dogs with us wherever we went after our alliance formed in the palaeolithic. We took them to America and to the Pacific Islands. They made hunting easy and helped guard our food. It has been a very powerful alliance.”
RISE AND FALL OF NEANDERTHALS

250,000 years ago The first Neanderthals appear in Europe.

200,000 years The first modern humans appear in Africa.

70,000 years The first modern humans leave Africa.

50-60,000 years Modern humans and Neanderthals share territory in Middle East.

45,000 years Modern humans enter Europe.

40,000 years Neanderthals disappear.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News and Media 2015

 22 
 on: Mar 01, 2015, 02:58 AM 
Started by Sabrina - Last post by Katherine
Thanks for the list, Linda!

 23 
 on: Mar 01, 2015, 02:45 AM 
Started by Eric - Last post by Katherine
This is mind blowing to me.

Someone comes on at about 42 seconds and tells you what it is exactly. If I were you, I would just push play and close my eyes and listen without reading anything about it and then wait for this woman to explain at 42 seconds in.

https://soundcloud.com/acornavi/jim-wilson-crickets-audio

So beautiful...  Thank you, Sunyata!

 24 
 on: Mar 01, 2015, 01:28 AM 
Started by Eric - Last post by Sunyata
This is mind blowing to me.

Someone comes on at about 42 seconds and tells you what it is exactly. If I were you, I would just push play and close my eyes and listen without reading anything about it and then wait for this woman to explain at 42 seconds in.

https://soundcloud.com/acornavi/jim-wilson-crickets-audio

 25 
 on: Feb 28, 2015, 03:03 PM 
Started by Maya - Last post by Maya
Hi All,

Does the asteroids : Palas, Vesta etc correlate with the Natural Women ? (JWG talked about them)


Maya

 26 
 on: Feb 28, 2015, 08:42 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov shot dead

Agence France-Presse
27 Feb 2015 at 18:10 ET                   

Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov, a fierce critic of President Vladmir Putin, was shot dead in central Moscow late Friday ahead of a major opposition rally this weekend, investigators and police said.

This story has been updated

“In central Moscow, a man with documents in the name of Boris Yefimovich Nemtsov was killed,” an interior ministry spokesman told AFP early Saturday, declining to give further details.

Russia’s Investigative Committee confirmed the death, saying it had opened a criminal probe.

“According to preliminary information, an unidentified person shot at Boris Nemtsov no fewer than 7-8 times from a car as he was walking along the Bolshoi Moskvoretsky bridge,” investigators said in a statement.

The committee, which reports directly to Putin, said that “experienced” investigators had been put on the case.

Nemtsov launched his political career as the governor of Nizhny Novgorod region in central Russia and became a vice prime minister in the late 1990s under the presidency of Boris Yeltsin.

After leaving parliament in 2003, he helped establish and led several opposition parties and groups.

Nemtov’s murder comes ahead of a major opposition rally scheduled to take place on March 1.

The murder “bears the hallmarks of a contract killing,” Putin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said.

Another interior ministry spokesperson, Yelena Alekseyeva, told reporters at the scene that Nemtsov was walking with a woman when he was shot.

The woman, who is from Ukraine, was now being questioned, she added.

Interior Minister Vladimir Kolokoltsev has taken charge of the criminal probe, she said.

Mikhail Kasyanov, a former prime minister turned opposition leader, told reporters after viewing the scene: “This is payback for the fact that Boris consistently for many, many years fought for Russia to be a free democratic country.”

***************

Russian opposition leader Nemtsov’s murder ‘meticulously planned’

Agence France-Presse
28 Feb 2015 at 08:34 ET 

The murder of Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov was carefully planned, investigators said Saturday, pointing to details of the weapon used and the killers’ knowledge of his movements.

“There is no doubt that the crime was meticulously planned, as well as the place chosen for the murder,” the powerful Investigative Committee, which has been put in charge of the probe, said in its first detailed statement on the drive-by shooting of the 55-year-old politician.

Investigators said they believed Nemtsov was shot in the back from a car using a Makarov pistol, used by the Russian military and police.

They said that six cartridges found at the scene were manufactured by different companies, making them harder to trace.

The murder was committed by someone familiar with Nemtsov’s plans, they added. “According to the investigation, Boris Nemtsov was going with his female companion to his flat, which is not far from the scene. And it’s obvious that the organisers and perpetrators of this crime were informed of his planned route.”

 27 
 on: Feb 28, 2015, 04:20 AM 
Started by Linda - Last post by Linda
Hello Eos,


Wow ~ what a month March is going to be with:


-  Jupiter trine Uranus in the first week,


-  Yod:  Sun - Pluto - Jupiter (apex) on 3-7 March,


-  Full Moon at 14 deg Virgo on 5th March,


-  Venus, Mars and Uranus in Aries conjunct the South Node and squaring Pluto in Capricorn,


-  the 7th and final Pluto/Uranus exact square at 15 deg Aries/Capricorn on 16-17 March,


-  a New Moon Solar Eclipse at 29 deg Pisces on 20th March 2015,


-  Yod:  Mercury - Pluto - Jupiter on 21-23 March, and


-  Grand Trine:  Pluto, Venus and Black Moon Lilith at the end of the month.


The New Moon Solar Eclipse will square your Nodes in Sagittarius/Gemini creating "temporary skipped steps."


Temporary skipped step – transiting Nodal Axis or planet

[Example: Transiting Jupiter in Aries/11th house squaring natal South Node in Capricorn/8th house, North Node in Cancer/2nd house] If a planet forms a square to the natal Nodal Axis it reflects that the specific planetary function (by house and sign locality) will act/serve as a skipped step for the duration of that transit in the context of the current evolutionary/karmic intentions symbolized by the natal South and North Nodes. For example, when Jupiter was in Aries/in my 11th house (which is also the polarity point of my natal Pluto) squaring my natal axis of South Node in Capricorn/8th house and North Node in Cancer/2nd house I experienced a transiting skipped step in the context of the need to assert/develop autonomy and independence and express my unique individuality in regards to new teachings I had learned (Jupiter in Aries/11th house) that facilitated the need to become inwardly secure and self-reliant (North Node in Cancer/2nd house) and how it conflicted with my existing obligations and responsibilities at an existing university (South Node in Capricorn/8th house) which did not allow the new teachings I had learned to be assimilated/taught in an independent manner. The key point within this is that I needed to adjust my interpretation (Jupiter) of my personal experience at that time and to be willing to break free from my existing obligations/responsibilities in order to peruse a new path that was in alignment with the teachings that promoted the ability to become inwardly secure, self-reliant, and reflected the development of my new identity in this context. Again, the skipped step was regarding my own interpretation/teachings that were assimilated and my ability to develop a life path that reflects my natural truth/voice independent from previous social conditioning/man-made teachings I had absorbed from the evolutionary past (transiting Jupiter in Aries/11th house squaring natal South Node in Capricorn/8th house, North Node in Cancer/2nd house).

If the transiting nodal axis is square a natal planet the specific dynamics symbolized by the nodal axis (by house and sign locality) then the current dynamics that are linked with the transition from past (transiting South Node) to future (transiting North Node) act/serve as a skipped step in terms of the natal squaring planet. In other words, the transiting Nodal Axis symbolizes where our past meets our future, so to speak, and that those specific dynamics are now acting as skipped steps in the context of the natal planet. Again the transiting Nodes symbolize the evolutionary movement/integration from past to future in the current time while the natal Nodal Axis reflects the ongoing transition from the evolutionary past to future throughout the life. (Deva)



Please let us know if you would like to share any events throughout the month.


Thanks so much,

Linda


 28 
 on: Feb 28, 2015, 01:18 AM 
Started by AndreaManik - Last post by CindyRenee
Blessings and thank you, Rad.
I'll endeavor to maintain and not forget the bottom line within my musings: wakan tanka.
Mitakuye Oyasin!

 29 
 on: Feb 27, 2015, 02:17 PM 
Started by Sabrina - Last post by Linda
Hi Sabrina,


Table of Planetary/Asteroid Speeds

(from fastest to slowest)


Ascendant/Midheaven
Dark Moon Lilith
Moon
Mercury
Venus
Mars
Vesta
Asteroid Lilith
Juno
Ceres
Pallas
Lucifer
Amazone, Persephone
Black Moon Lilith
Jupiter
Moon's Nodes
Saturn
Chiron
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Sun


Thanks,

Linda

    

 30 
 on: Feb 27, 2015, 02:07 PM 
Started by Linda - Last post by Linda
Thanks, Urano, for your amazing comments!

Linda  Cheesy

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