How satellites are helping decode human-caused earthquakes
Prior to 2008, the US Geological Survey had never recorded an earthquake in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, but since then the area has seen almost 200.
By Rowena Lindsay, Staff September 26, 2016
An international team of researchers recently determined that the 4.8 magnitude earthquake that shook Timpson, Texas in 2012, the largest earthquake ever measured in the state, was caused by fracking and the subsequent wastewater injection process.
Using satellite data from the Japanese Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), the research team observed changes in the height of the ground above several fracking wastewater wells. The study, which was published Thursday in Science, may also hold the key to predicting future man-made earthquakes, by monitoring how the earth responds to pressure.
“Our research is the first to provide an answer to the questions of why some wastewater injection causes earthquakes, where it starts, and why it stops,” study co-author William Ellsworth, a geophysics professor at Stanford’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, said in a press release.
While fracking, water is pumped through the subsurface, where it mixes with the gas or oil. Once the fuel source is separated out, the resulting wastewater is too contaminated to be purified into drinking water, so it is inserted into the ground, a process that can increase pressure under the earth’s surface and cause earthquakes in areas far from tectonic plate boundaries.
As Anna Kuchment reported for NPR:
Until 2008 not a single earthquake had ever been recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey from the Dallas–Fort Worth area.... Since then, close to 200 have shaken the cities and their immediate suburbs. Statewide, Texas is experiencing a sixfold increase in earthquakes over historic levels. Oklahoma has seen a 160-fold spike in quakes, some of which have sent people to hospitals and damaged buildings and highways. In 2014 the state’s earthquake rate surpassed California’s.
Interestingly, the earthquake didn’t occur beneath the wastewater wells where the ground movement was observed. It happened 15 miles away, near two different wells where the wastewater was injected much deeper into the earth. Rather than pushing the earth upward, the deep wells increased both the underground pressure and the lubrication within the rocks, ultimately causing the 2012 earthquake along an ancient fault line, said Dr. Ellsworth.
Justin Rubinstein, a geophysicist at the USGS who was not involved in this study, told Scientific American that the absence of ground rise may actually indicate higher pressure underground. Therefore, the satellite technology may actually be more useful in looking for wastewater wells above which the earth is not rising, as an indicator of human-caused earthquakes in the making.
Their findings highlight the importance of understanding local geology before starting wastewater injection, say the researchers. “The recent upturn in seismicity in Oklahoma and Kansas commonly happens where injection occurs close to the crystalline basement, so we’re getting lots of earthquakes in those places,” Ellsworth said.
“Injecting at shallower depth above a blocking formation would reduce the ability of the pore pressures to migrate to the basement and activate the faults,” he added. In other words, keeping the water in shallow wells, above a thick layer of impermeable rock, allows the pressure to gently bow the surface upward and may keep it from causing an earthquake.
Through further analysis, the research team hopes that their data will help explain why earthquakes occur at some well injection site but not others. More data is key, both from satellites and regular reports on the volume of water injected into the earth.
“States need to do a much better job of gathering the data and making it available to the public so these sorts of studies are possible,” Mark McClure, an adjunct professor for energy resources engineering at Stanford University, told Scientific American. “Specifically, monthly injection volumes for every well.”
Judge rules that states, not US, have authority to govern fracking
A Wyoming district judge has ruled that the court's responsibility is not to determine if fracking is good or bad for the environment but to determine whether the Department of the Interior can legally regulate the practice.
By Simone McCarthy, Staff June 22, 2016
A US District judge in Cheyenne, Wyo., ruled Tuesday in favor of state sovereignty when it comes to the regulation of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking.
The decision centered on whether the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BML) has the authority to regulate the oil and gas extraction procedure in the state. The ruling marks another strike against President Obama's hopes of controlling fossil fuel mining on a federal level.
US District Judge Scott Skavdahl, who was appointed by Mr. Obama in 2011, said that it was not his court's role to determine whether fracking is a danger to the environment, but rather to determine if Congress had granted the Department of the Interior the authority to regulate it, the Associated Press reports.
In his ruling, he found that Congress has not given that power to the federal agency and that any regulations need to be made by the states themselves.
US Rep. Cynthia Lummis (R) of Wyoming told the AP that the ruling was a victory for states' rights, saying that her state and others already have "careful and efficient regulation of fracturing."
Colorado, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming all oppose the BML's rules. Each of the states, as well as the Utah-based Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray and energy industry groups, filed briefs with Judge Skavdahl arguing for their rights.
The rules proposed by the BML would have required developers to report the ingredients of the chemicals that they used in hydraulic fracturing. These chemicals are used to increase a well's production of oil and gas and can be shot into the ground along with water and sand during the hydraulic fracturing process.
Neal Kirby, a spokesman for the Independent Petroleum Association of America, said Tuesday he is pleased with Skavdahl's decision, the AP reports.
"BLM did not have the authority to issue its rule in the first place," Kirby told the AP. "Today's decision demonstrates BLM's efforts are not needed and that states are – and have for over 60 years been – in the best position to safely regulate hydraulic fracturing."
Fracking is used at 90 percent of new land-based wells, according to reports last year. And while the Obama administration issued regulations on the practice in 2015, the question of whether the state or federal government would be monitoring and regulating the practice's effect on the environment has a remained topic of contention.
In a decision that seems out of sync with the one that was made in Cheyenne this week, a US District Court in Los Angeles ruled earlier this year that the federal government must stop granting approval for offshore oil fracking in California's Santa Barbara Channel. The ruling ordered that the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement must analyze the environmental impact of fracking before issuing any more licenses, reported Story Hinkley for The Christian Science Monitor.
"Federal law clearly requires our government to analyze these threats. They can't just shrug off that obligation," Kristen Monsell, an attorney at the Center of Biological Diversity who worked on the lawsuit, told the Monitor in February.
And as courts decide where the regulatory power should lie, the environmental hazards of fracking continue to be debated. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency released a report last year that supported the positions of both environmental groups and the energy industry.
The report, which focused on land-based fracking like the type being used in Wyoming, said that it did not find "widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water resources," reported the Monitor's Sarah Caspari. However, the same report noted instances where water was affected and noted ways that fracking could contaminate water supplies.
on: Sep 26, 2016, 04:54 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
on: Sep 26, 2016, 04:50 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
China begins test of world’s largest radio telescope: What might it find?
FAST has already discovered a pulsar about 1,351 light years away. Could the radio telescope discover signs of alien life too?
By Ben Rosen, Staff September 26, 2016
The search is on in China to better understand the cosmos, its origins, and, perhaps, find extraterrestrial life.
China has started to test its Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST), unveiling the world’s largest radio telescope at a ceremony Sunday. While Chinese scientists will spend the next three years testing, tuning, and calibrating the dish, it has already made one discovery. It has detected radio signals from a pulsar about 1,351-light-years away, one of thousands of remnants of burned-out stars the telescope is expected to discover in its lifetime, according to Qian Lei, an associate researcher with the National Astronomical Observation under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The telescope – which spans 1,640-feet, and whose combined area is equal to almost 450 basketball courts – shows China’s growing ambition to be a science and space superpower. But the country has also emphasized the importance of collaborating with the international scientific community in its quest to understand the stars and, perhaps, discover other galactic inhabitants.
"The ultimate goal of FAST is to discover the laws of the development of the universe," Dr. Qian told CCTV, the Chinese state broadcaster. "In theory, if there is civilization in outer space, the radio signal it sends will be similar to the signal we can receive when a pulsar (spinning neutron star) is approaching us."
The telescope, comprised of 4,450 panels, is nestled in a natural crater in the remote Pingtang county in China's southern Guizhou province. Green hillsides of karst formations, dissolved and eroded over eons, envelope the wok-shaped dish. It is the ideal environment for a radio telescope, according to The New York Times. The karst serve as a natural barrier against earthly radio noise and wind that could drown out whispers from space. The second largest radio telescope, the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, was built into a similar environment.
About 984 feet, or 300 meters, wide, the Arecibo Observatory was used by Joseph Taylor, an astronomer at Princeton University, in his discovery of indirect proof of gravitational waves, which earned him a Nobel Prize in 1993.
FAST has double the sensitivity of its Puerto Rican counterpart, and five to 10 times the surveying speed, according to Xinhua.
Yet, both telescopes more or less operate the same way: They detect electromagnetic radiation in the cosmos.
“This is light with a wavelength a million times or so longer than our eyes can detect,” writes Elias Brinks, an astronomer at the University of Hertfordshire, in a contribution to US News and World Report. “Not surprisingly, the sky at these long wavelengths looks vastly different, which is exactly why observations at radio wavelengths reveal information that is not accessible with optical telescopes.”
The resolution of the images will appear much worse than how we see the world with our own eyes. But the sheer size of FAST will allow it to collect vast amounts of signals from even the deepest reaches of space.
"A radio telescope is like a sensitive ear, listening to tell meaningful radio messages from white noise in the universe.” Nan Rendong, chief scientist of the FAST project with the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, told Xinhua when the construction of FAST was completed in July. “It is like identifying the sound of cicadas in a thunderstorm."
FAST is optimized to detect neutral hydrogen, “the most abundant element in the universe, and raw materials from which stars are formed,” writes Dr. Brinks.
“FAST will be able to make a complete census down to much lower levels of the hydrogen content of the local universe than has been possible so far,” he says. “How much hydrogen is found, where and in what kind of agglomerations, will have direct consequences for how scientists think the universe evolved from its earliest phase and how galaxies formed and have continued to grow with time.”
The telescope is also expected to discover thousands of pulsars, according to Xinhua. Pulsars can serve as “high-precision clocks” to reveal gravitational waves from black holes or even the Big Bang, offering a window into the beginnings of the universe.
China also hopes to use the telescope to search for signs of alien life. The telescope could detect extraterrestrial signals sent to Earth, intentionally or accidentally. This search has proven fruitless in the six decades the world has sought out extraterrestrial life. But FAST marks a significant investment in this search. The $180-million price of the project (which some have reported sounds modest) is much more than the "shoestring" this quest has operated on, as Pete Spotts reported for The Christian Science Monitor in July 2015.
The results of that search aren't expected to come soon, as scientists must calibrate the telescope over the next three years. But, FAST also represents a shift in the types of investments China has made.
“Chinese science is often seen as serving the country’s economic and military expansion, seeking ruthlessly practical dividends,” wrote Chris Buckley and Adam Wu for The New York Times. “But the telescope shows the government in Beijing is also willing to spend heavily to propel China high into the big leagues in research that offers few direct payoffs, apart from knowledge and prestige.”
on: Sep 26, 2016, 04:48 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
Light-bending technique helps scientists find planets orbiting two suns
A newly confirmed star system helps validate the use of the microlensing technique in the search for other worlds.
By Lonnie Shekhtman, Staff September 26, 2016
A technique that allows astronomers to pinpoint planets that are too far away from their suns for Earth- or space-based telescopes to identify, has confirmed a new planet that orbits two suns, or stars, in a system scientists call OGLE-2007-BLG-349.
This circumbinary planet, which means it orbits two stars, is located about 8,000 light years away, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. It’s about 300 million miles away from its suns, which is roughly the distance from the ribbon of asteroids located between Mars and Jupiter to our sun. The two stars in this system, which are red dwarfs, or small and low energy stars, are 7 million miles apart from each other. This distance is 14 times the diameter of the moon's orbit around Earth, according to NASA.
Though the trio was first spotted in 2007 by Earth-based telescopes, astronomers could not discern the third object. "The ground-based observations suggested two possible scenarios for the three-body system: a Saturn-mass planet orbiting a close binary star pair, or a Saturn-mass and an Earth-mass planet orbiting a single star," David Bennett, a scientist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., said in an online announcement.
Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope observations and a promising technique that spots gravitational microlensing, or bending of light that passes between celestial objects, astronomers finally were able to determine that the third object they had identified was indeed a star. When light from one star is bent and amplified as it aligns with its partner star while the second one momentarily passes in front of it during its orbit, like a magnifying glass passing in front of an object, this is called microlensing. By looking at how the light bends and thus distorts the image of the objects around it during microlensing events, astronomers can glean information about those objects.
Hubble observations revealed that the light coming from this newly discovered system was too faint to be coming from a single star. The level of brightness Hubble recorded is associated most closely with two red dwarf stars orbiting close to each other.
“So the model with two stars and one planet is the only one consistent with the Hubble data,” Dr. Bennett said in the NASA announcement.
These types of star pairs, or binary stars, are common throughout the galaxy, as Universe Today points out. Scientists estimate that half the stars are actually duos, which could mean that about half of exoplanets, or planets that orbit stars other than our sun, could be circumbinary. According to Universe Today, only about 10 circumbinary planets have been discovered so far out of the more than 3,000 exoplanets that have been confirmed.
These have been discovered by NASA's planet-hunting telescope Kepler and are all much closer to their stars than the one spotted by Hubble.
But microlensing could open the door to many more discoveries, scientists hope. “Now that the team has shown that microlensing can successfully detect planets orbiting double-star systems, Hubble could provide an essential role in this new realm in the continued search for exoplanets,” the NASA statement says.
on: Sep 26, 2016, 04:46 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
+Stephen Hawking warning: If aliens call, should we answer?
Stephen Hawking once more warns that “meeting an advanced civilization could be like Native Americans encountering Columbus — that didn’t turn out so well.”
By Christina Beck, Staff September 26, 2016
Stephen Hawking, perhaps the world’s best-known cosmologist, theoretical physicist and author, has once again issued a warning on Earth’s search for extraterrestrial life, repeating his advice that humans should think twice before we make contact.
Dr. Hawking expressed his concerns on a newly released 25-minute online film called "Stephen Hawking’s Favorite Places," in which he takes viewers on a virtual tour of his five favorite places in the universe. As the camera peers into black holes and looks at star systems on the program, Hawking cautions that while life might be out there, it might not be a pleasant thing for humanity to discover.
“We should be wary of answering back,” Hawking said, echoing sentiments he has previously expressed. “Meeting an advanced civilization could be like Native Americans encountering Columbus — that didn’t turn out so well.”
Although Hawking has long supported the search for life outside our own planet, he has remained cautious through the years, repeatedly warning that if we encounter life elsewhere, there is a good chance that the life we encounter might not be the best kind of neighbor.
“We only have to look at ourselves to see how intelligent life might develop into something we wouldn’t want to meet,” Hawking told The Times of London in 2010, adding that:
“I imagine they might exist in massive ships, having used up all the resources from their home planet. Such advanced aliens would perhaps become nomads, looking to conquer and colonize whatever planets they can reach.”
Nevertheless, Hawking is an enthusiastic researcher, ever expressing curiosity in the possible worlds beyond our solar system.
In Stephen Hawking’s Favorite Places, released on the online platform Curiosity Stream, he brings viewers to the planet Gliese 832c, located about 16 light years away from our own planet in the constellation Grus. Currently, Gliese 832c is one of the best candidates to date for life outside of Earth.
“It’s a breathtaking sight, a super-Earth five times more massive than ours,” Hawking tells viewers.
There are various efforts underway in the search for life beyond this planet - ranging from NASA's Mars mission to the three-decade old Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute in Mountain View, Calif.
Another recently launched initiative, sponsored in part by Hawking himself, is searching for signs of communication from outer space.
"There is no bigger question. It's time to commit to finding the answer – to search for life beyond Earth," said Hawking at the launch of the $100 million Breakthrough Listen project, though he remained cautious about contact with other civilizations.
Sponsored by Hawking, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, and Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, Breakthrough Listen project would send thousands of postage stamp sized nanobots through the universe, propelled by light.
While any civilization spotted could be thousands of years ahead of humans, in terms of technology and understanding, and therefore dangerous, Hawking is nevertheless interested in seeing just how much humanity can discover. And, he notes, we might need to look beyond our Earth for survival.
"The Earth is a wonderful place, but it might not last forever," Hawking at a Breakthrough Listen press conference this spring. "Sooner or later we must look to the stars. Breakthrough Starshot is a very exciting first step on that journey."
"The limit that confronts us now is the great void between us and the stars," he added. "But now we can transcend it, with light beams, light sails, and the lightest spacecraft ever built. Today we commit to this next great leap into the cosmos, because we are human and our nature is to fly."
on: Sep 26, 2016, 04:43 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
September 26, 2016
SpaceX discovers the cause of their rocket’s explosion
by Chuck Bednar
A “large breach” in the upper stage helium pressurization system caused a SpaceX Falcon 9 booster to explode earlier this month, destroying both the rocket and its $200 million satellite payload, the California-based aerospace firm has announced.
According to USA Today and Spaceflight Now, a preliminary internal investigation conducted with the assistance of US Air Force, Federal Aviation Administration, and industry officials has determined that a breach of the cryogenic helium system of the second stage liquid oxygen tank took place. The cause of that breach remains unknown at this point, investigators said.
In an update posted to the company’s website, SpaceX said that the even thought the timeline of the September 1 incident was “extremely short – from first signs of an anomaly to loss of data is about 93 milliseconds or less than 1/10th of a second,” the investigative team had reviewed more than 3,000 channels of engineering data along with audio, video and images of the blast.
A review of that data, along with debris that had been recovered an inspected, “suggests that a large breach in the cryogenic helium system of the second stage liquid oxygen tank took place,” the company said. “All plausible causes are being tracked... carefully investigated.”
Company could resume spaceflight as early as November
Earlier this month, SpaceX chief Elon Musk said that he would not rule out the possibility that something had struck the rocket, according to USA Today. The Falcon 9 was being fueled for a test-firing of its nine primary engines prior to the scheduled satellite launch, they added.
SpaceX officials have said that “safely and reliably” returning the Falcon 9 booster to regular use was the investigation’s top priority, Spaceflight Now said. Thus far, the investigation discovered “substantial” damage to some areas of the pad systems, but the Falcon Support Building adjacent to the pad and the liquid oxygen tanks and plumbing were unaffected, the company noted.
“The RP-1 (kerosene) fuel farm was also largely unaffected,” SpaceX said, and the pad’s control systems were also said to be “in relatively good condition.” Most of the firm’s other facilities are located several miles away, they noted, meaning that they were also unaffected.
At this point, no timetable has been set for when repairs at the launch pad will be complete, USA Today noted, so in the meantime, SpaceX plans to use facilities at nearby Kennedy Space Center. They hope to have that launch pad ready for use by the end of November, although it is currently unclear if the company plans to conduct their next launch in Florida or California.
“Our manufacturing and production is continuing in a methodical manner, with teams continuing to build engines, tanks, and other systems as they are exonerated from the investigation,” SpaceX explained. “We will work to resume our manifest as quickly as responsible once the cause of the anomaly has been identified,” they added. “Pending the results of the investigation, we anticipate returning to flight as early as the November timeframe.”
on: Sep 25, 2016, 08:18 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by dollydaydream|
Kristin, thank you for the further clarification of skipped steps.
on: Sep 24, 2016, 04:32 PM
|Started by Rad - Last post by The Otherside|
When ever I feel lost I turn to the paridym of JWG and I'm instantly soothed... It's like a lullaby to my Soul... Thank you
on: Sep 24, 2016, 10:46 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by ari moshe|
Thanks for sharing this Rad.
on: Sep 24, 2016, 09:21 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
Superbugs evolve in waste water, and could end up in our food
24 Sep 2016 at 10:37 ET
We are heading into a post-antibiotic era, where common infections could once again be deadly. A phenomenon known as antimicrobial resistance threatens the heart of modern medicine.
Antimicrobial resistance occurs when an antibiotic cannot do its job: killing bacteria. Bacteria become “resistant” to the drugs and continue to reproduce even at high dosages.
This is already happening. We are failing to treat infections, and patients are forced to stay longer in care facilities to overcome them. By 2050, antimicrobial resistance will cause ten million human fatalities annually and lead to a US$100 trillion loss in GDP worldwide.
The misuse and overuse of antibiotics in human medicine and animal husbandry to treat bacterial infections or to promote growth are placing our well-being at risk.
This is why global leaders gathered at the United Nations General Assembly this week to discuss the problem, and accepted an action plan to address it. To date, the only other health topics discussed at this level are HIV, non-communicable diseases and Ebola.
What’s the big deal?
Everywhere in the world, common infections are becoming resistant to the antimicrobial drugs used to treat them. Urinary tract infections and sexually transmittable diseases such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis, once curable with antibiotics, are now highly resistant. Few or none of the antibiotics are effective any more. Put simply, this means longer illnesses and more deaths.
Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies are not showing enough interest in new drug discovery because often the time necessary for a strain of bacteria to develop resistance is shorter than the time needed to test and validate new drugs.
What can the UN achieve?
Implementing change is not possible without concerted action from all states. The meeting in New York is perfectly timed to escalate the issue to a level that befits the magnitude of the problem.
Action to change how antibiotics are used requires proper monitoring. No single country will be able help without coordination from international organisations. To help, the UN should ask for support from member states on data and awareness.
International regulations should be adopted immediately by member states and legally binding global surveillance requested. There is no time to wait – antibiotic resistance is a real threat and is fast reaching the point of no return.
Still missing from the picture
While the conversation on antibiotic resistance has started, one part of the story has not been highlighted. The risks to human and ecosystem health are strongly connected to poor water quality.
After we take an antibiotic to treat bacterial infections, the resistant bacteria in our bodies are excreted, and eventually reach a wastewater treatment plant. Sewers and treatment plants are the principal collectors of household and hospital waste, where mixtures of different types of bacteria create the optimal conditions for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria.
Treatment plants bridge the gap between human and natural environments, so both resistant and non-resistant bacteria are able to reach the freshwater ecosystem. Studying wastewater represents a critical part of understanding the spread of antibiotic resistance, especially if treated wastewater is used as reclaimed water. With treated wastewater increasingly being used in agriculture to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions, resistant bacteria may find its way into our food as well.
What is required is a shift from a human health perspective to a systems perspective, taking into account these important environmental aspects.
Where do we go from here?
The action plan from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization declares that the health of all forms of life and the health of the environment are interconnected.
Taking it one step further, the strategy adopted for human and animal health should also include special regard to wastewater.
Water governs most of our activities, and only a comprehensive approach is capable of building an effective global resilience to this problem. By including wastewater to the global action plan, we might be able to slow down the process of developing and spread antibiotic resistance.
While we advocate for awareness, policy, and global standards, at the individual level, you can also take action. At your next doctor’s visit, be informed about antibiotics and take them only with prescription, and only if really necessary.
Serena Caucci, Researcher, United Nations University
on: Sep 24, 2016, 08:44 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Kristin|
I would like to offer some further thoughts on the nature of skipped steps, and how it can manifest in people's lives. One of the trickiest, and as a result, the most challenging turns one experiences when working through skipped steps is the feeling that the Soul has resolved what it has needed to, only to come to discover there are remaining remnants of more which is similar to pulling a weed out of the ground, and not getting all the way down to the bottom of its roots, it will undoubtedly return.
The Soul can be under the illusion that they are done, because in truth, the Soul may really desire to be done, but if there is anything left, it will keep repeating whether they want it to be done or not. It will always reveal the truth of where the Soul sits in this process. In other words, if the skipped step are truly resolved the Soul will simply not create any further circumstances which reflect what those skipped steps have been about. If such circumstances continue to manifest, in one form or way after the other, then those skipped steps have not been resolved. This can be very, very tricky because of the previous dynamics within the Soul that has caused the skipped steps in the first place.
Also, almost inevitably, when any Soul experiences a quantum leap in their personal evolution, a true feeling of release from the hard past, there will be something on the heels of the good growth that tries to undermine the positive steps taken. This in itself becomes yet another challenge. While this occurs for all Souls whether one is dealing with skipped steps or not, this experience can be particularly intense for someone with this signature because the groove in the record of resistance can be so deep, and the tendency to fall back on old patterns can be so tempting and fierce. Self determination will be essential and must become the Soul's front line of attack, especially when the Soul feels like forward steps taken may feel to be lost. It is in those moments when the Soul turns and faces the TRUTH of what it needs, with the inner gates wide open, that an acceleration of the Soul's evolution can take place, a true freedom feeling like no other.
It is important to remember that everything unresolved will be carried forward. If the Soul is not successful in getting all the way under the repeating theme, which will require the individual to EMOTIONALLY work all the way through this dynamic, it will be carried into the next, which is why it can take lifetimes to work through.
As it relates to the example that Rad shared here with Venus in the 7th square the Nodes, South Node in the 4th and North Node in the 10th, this Soul will continue to pull in relationships where they are forever feeling thrown back upon themselves, also in cases where they may feel they are giving more than they are getting, and that painful feeling of 'expectations not met' presents let down after let down. This Soul has set this up so they are forced to inwardly mature, to establish their own inner sense of security versus feeling as if thy need to be filled up by another, leaning too heavily on parents or partners for sustenance and comfort.
The very nature of the type of Soul this person will be attracting will force this theme to repeat BECAUSE of the very energy of NEED that the Soul is emanating. The Soul has no choice but to look TO and lean ON themselves. In time, through repeated experiences along these lines, the inner growth can occur as the Soul creates a new groove for itself, the Soul turns IN for strength versus looking OUTside of themselves for someone to complete them or to fix a feeling.
The true marker of knowing that growth has been gained in this case is for the Soul to carry an energy that says, "I do not need you to feel happy or whole, I am whole unto myself, I am here because I want to be, not out of need." At this point, the types of relationships this Soul would then be pulling in will be rooted far more in equality, because of the inner balance that has been established. While the balance does not occur over night, so too will this Soul be experiencing a progression of evolution in terms of the nature of the relationships that they call in.
If that same old theme stops repeating, the Soul will know it is well on its way.