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 on: Jun 29, 2016, 05:17 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
CS Monitor

Could ancient wheat species play a big role in the future of food?

Modern agriculture favors just a handful of crops, but a bewildering array of diversity remains locked away in gene banks.

By Jason Thomson, Staff June 29, 2016   

Einkorn, emmer, and spelt are ancient species of wheat that were integral to the diets of our ancestors, but have largely faded into memory, replaced by a select number of crops that dominate fields the world over.

In fact, of the 30,000 edible plant species known to science, a mere 30 represent the crops that feed the world. Of those, five cereals (rice, wheat, maize, millet and sorghum) provide 60 percent of mankind’s energy intake.

Yet a bewildering array of those outmoded varieties remain accessible, many lying frozen in gene banks. A new research paper, published Monday in Trends in Plant Science, advocates their resurrection, suggesting that the reintroduction of more diversity could bring many benefits.

“Extreme focus on few species and accessions has led to a large loss of biodiversity,” write the authors, “with negative consequences such as the extinction of species, vulnerability of ecosystems, and difficulties to meet future agricultural demands, because genetic variability to provide climatic and pest adaptation is lost.”

Moreover, the researchers suggest that the time is ripe for such a reintroduction, considering the burgeoning demand for high-quality, healthy food.

"People are interested in diversity, in getting something with more taste, with healthier ingredients, and ancient grains deliver interesting things," said co-author Friedrich Longin in a press release.

Many people’s attitudes today, particularly in the United States and Europe, give primary consideration to characteristics other than cost, making such proposals realistic in a way that they may not have been in decades past. Niche markets for small farmers, bakers and millers have become feasible again.

Already, multi-grain products such as breads and baked goods are popular, containing ingredients such as oats, millet, and barley, but the wheat flour employed is almost exclusively from bread wheat, just one of three species, 20 subspecies and thousands of varieties of wheat that have been cultivated and consumed over the millenniums.

Globalization and the explosion of industrial agriculture in the 20th century narrowed the range of crops being grown, ever seeking those that provided the highest yields, the shortest stalks – to prevent collapsing – and the best resistance to pests. Any varieties that failed to meet these criteria fell from favor.

In determining which plants make suitable candidates for reintroduction, these qualities would still be important, but a more holistic approach would be required, say the authors, incorporating other factors such as taste and nutrition. Their own research has demonstrated the importance of considering the whole range of variables.

"When you look at einkorn, it is really fantastic looking in the field,” said Dr. Longin, “but when you get the agronomic performance, it is low yielding and it falls down in the rain. But then we found there were so many healthy ingredients, and you taste and even see it in the end product."

Spelt serves as an illustration of how such reintroduction can breed success. In southern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, it was the dominant cereal crop until the early 20th century, when it all but disappeared. Its rediscovery in the 1970s met with a slow beginning, as all but a handful of millers and bakers were still familiar with traditional spelt recipes.

Spelt had originally fallen out of fashion in no small part due to agronomic problems centered round its long stem, resulting in "lodging" – the collapse of the stem when it can no longer support its own weight – which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest. A breeding program beginning in the late 20th century sought to address this, and by 2000, spelt was producing 20 percent higher yields than original varieties. Marketing and research then contributed to boosting spelt's appeal, highlighting "an enormous richness of the spelt breads in texture and flavor," as the authors describe it, emphasizing the diversity it could contribute to our diet.

Today, the crop blankets more than 100,000 hectares of land in and around Germany, provides an annual turnover of €1 billion ($1.1 billion) and an annual growth rate of five percent.

But if other varieties are to meet with similar success, say the researchers, there will need to be an interdisciplinary approach, with cooperation all along the supply chain, from plant breeders and nutritionists, to marketing and vendors.

"It would be worthwhile to look a bit more in the gene banks at what diversity is sleeping there that has been forgotten by the industry," said Longin.

 on: Jun 29, 2016, 05:15 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 29, 2016

New pear-shaped nucleus could ruin time travel forever

by Susanna Pilny
Red Orbit

A new form of atomic nuclei has been confirmed, and its very existence may change what we thought were the fundamental aspects of physics—and could put a nail in the coffin of time travel, according to a new paper in Physical Review Letters.

Unlike all other known forms of atomic nuclei, this one is pear-shaped—meaning it’s not symmetrical. To understand what this means and why it’s important, we need to go back a few billion years, to the Big Bang.
Currently, the general thought is that the Big Bang created equal amounts of matter and antimatter—a symmetry which probably would have just resulted in them cancelling each other out. In our current times, though, matter won out, meaning all of us have the pleasure of existing.

This of course begs the question: Where the heck is all the antimatter?

Which is where our new pear-shaped form comes in. Up until now, the forms of the nuclei of atoms have been symmetrical in shape, which happens to pair nicely with a theory known as CP-Symmetry. CP-Symmetry involves a symmetry of charge and coordinates in space in the universe.

"In particle physics, if you have a particle spinning clockwise and decaying upwards, its antiparticle should spin counterclockwise and decay upwards 100 percent of the time if CP is conserved," Ethan Siegel from It Starts With a Bang explained to Forbes. "If not, CP is violated.”

Pear-shaped nucleus shakes up our view of physics and time travel

Up until now, the thought has been that CP was law and balance existed—a notion carried through in the shape of nuclei. Symmetry ruled the universe throughout. Well, it did until 2013 anyway, when the first pear-shaped nucleus in the isotope Radium-224 was discovered by physicists at CERN.

"The protons enrich in the bump of the pear and create a specific charge distribution in the nucleus," Marcus Scheck from the University of the West of Scotland told BBC News. "This violates the theory of mirror symmetry and relates to the violation shown in the distribution of matter and antimatter in our Universe."

Now, Scheck and his team were able to directly observe this distortion, thus confirming CERN’s previous findings. This time, it was seen in the nucleus of the isotope Barium-144—and the distortion was even more pronounced than predicted, which leads Scheck to believe that this little pear indicates time travel is a no-go.

"We've found these nuclei literally point towards a direction in space. This relates to a direction in time, proving there's a well-defined direction in time and we will always travel from past to present," said Scheck.

Of course, whether that holds true or not is a topic for the future.

 on: Jun 29, 2016, 05:12 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 29, 2016

Massive new helium source is a ‘life saver’

by Chuck Bednar
Red Orbit

While helium may be best known as the gas people use to fill up balloons and inhale to make their voices sound funny, it is actually a critically important element that has been in short supply as of late, but the discovery of a massive new helium gas field could change everything.

Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe and it's used in important applications such as MRI scanners, welding, and nuclear energy. Helium is the second most abundant gas in the universe, yet reserves of the element are running out here on Earth, and there may soon be a catastrophic shortage, according to Oxford and Durham University researchers.

However, using a new approach to gas exploration, Durham University Ph.D. student Diveena Danabalan, Oxford Earth Sciences Professor Chris Ballentine and their colleagues have found a potential new source of helium in Tanzanian East African Rift Valley, making this the first time that a cache of this rare gas has ever been intentionally discovered.

Once perfected, new technique could be a ‘game changer’

The UK-based researchers discovered that volcanic activity provides enough heat to release helium from ancient rocks, and that volcanic activity in the Rift Valley has released helium from said rocks, then trapped it in shallower gas fields. The team presented their findings as part of the ongoing Goldschmidt Geochemistry Conference in Yokohama, Japan.

“We show that volcanoes in the Rift play an important role in the formation of viable helium reserves,” Danabalan said in a statement. “Volcanic activity likely provides the heat necessary to release the helium accumulated in ancient crustal rocks. However, if gas traps are located too close to a given volcano, they run the risk of helium being heavily diluted by volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide, just as we see in thermal springs from the region.”

As such, their current goal is to identify the so-called “goldilocks-zone” that exists between the ancient rocks and the modern volcanoes in order to perfectly balance helium release and volcanic dilution. Once they do, independent projections have calculated that they will be able to obtain as much as 45 billion cubic feet (BCf) of helium from just one part of the rift valley. Ballentine said such a haul would be enough to completely fill more than one million MRI scanners.

“To put this discovery into perspective,” the Oxford professor added, “global consumption of helium is about 8 BCf per year and the United States Federal Helium Reserve, which is the world’s largest supplier, has a current reserve of just 24.2 BCf. Total known reserves in the USA are around 153 BCf. This is a game changer for the future security of society’s helium needs and similar finds in the future may not be far away.”

 on: Jun 29, 2016, 05:11 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 29, 2016

Mars used to have an Earth-like atmosphere

by Brett Smith
Red Orbit

An analysis of Martian rocks by NASA's Curiosity rover has indicated the Red Planet used to have a higher level of oxygen in its atmosphere than it currently does, according to a new report in Geophysical Research Letters.

Scientists discovered high amounts of manganese oxides using a laser device on the rover. This telltale sign of higher oxygen amounts in Mars' early atmosphere adds to other Curiosity findings that revealed how Earth-like the nearby planet used to be.

This study also adds critical context to other clues regarding atmospheric oxygen levels in Mars' past. The manganese oxides were discovered in mineral veins located within a region the Curiosity mission has focused on to understand the timeline of ancient Martian ecological conditions. Within that context, the greater oxygen level can be associated with a time when groundwater sat in Mars’ Gale Crater, where the rover has been exploring.

"The only ways on Earth that we know how to make these manganese materials involve atmospheric oxygen or microbes," Nina Lanza, a planetary scientist with NASA, said in a news release. "Now we're seeing manganese oxides on Mars, and we're wondering how the heck these could have formed?"

Finding could lead to discovery of microbial life on Mars

While the possibility of microbes evolving on Mars has seemed remote thus far, the new study indicates a significant chance of microbial activity.

"These high manganese materials can't form without lots of liquid water and strongly oxidizing conditions,” Lanza said. “Here on Earth, we had lots of water but no widespread deposits of manganese oxides until after the oxygen levels in our atmosphere rose."

In Earth's geological record, high levels of manganese oxide minerals are a critical marker of the significant change in our atmosphere's composition, from fairly low oxygen to the oxygen-rich atmosphere we see today. The existence of the same kinds of materials on Mars indicates that oxygen amounts rose there, too, before falling to their present levels.

"One potential way that oxygen could have gotten into the Martian atmosphere is from the breakdown of water when Mars was losing its magnetic field," Lanza said. "It's thought that at this time in Mars' history, water was much more abundant."

Without a magnetic field to guard the planet’s surface, ionizing radiation would split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Because of Mars' relatively low gravity, the planet wasn't able to retain hydrogen atoms. However, heavier oxygen atoms remained behind, got trapped in rocks and caused the rusty red dust we see on Mars today. While the red iron oxides need just mildly-oxidizing situation to develop, manganese oxides need a strong-oxidizing environment.

"It's hard to confirm whether this scenario for Martian atmospheric oxygen actually occurred,” Lanza said. “But it's important to note that this idea represents a departure in our understanding for how planetary atmospheres might become oxygenated."

 on: Jun 29, 2016, 05:08 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
June 28, 2016

Dwarf planet Makemake has a moon, astronomers find

by Chuck Bednar
Red Orbit

Makemake, a dwarf planet and one of the largest Kuiper Belt objects discovered to date, has a moon, according to a new study led by astronomers at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and published in Monday’s edition of Astrophysical Journal Letters.

The elusive, dark satellite was difficult to find, lead author Dr. Alex Parker and his colleagues explained in a statement, as much of its orbit is spent almost directly within the glare of the icy dwarf planet due to a nearly edge-on configuration. The newfound moon is believed to be less than 100 miles wide, while Makemake itself is approximately 870 miles across.

First discovered in 2005, Makemake is a football-shaped planet that has a diameter roughly two-thirds that of Pluto’s and his covered in frozen methane, according to the study authors. The new moon, which has been dubbed MK2, is much 1,300 times darker than the Kuiper Belt object that it orbits, and was found using the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 instrument.

“Makemake’s moon proves that there are still wild things waiting to be discovered, even in places people have already looked,” said Dr. Parker. MK2’s detection means that all four of the currently-designated dwarf planets are home to at least one satellite, according to SwRI.

Research could lead to discovery of other previously undetected moons

The authors of the new study are not the first to search for a moon around Makemake, but previous attempts to locate the satellite proved unfruitful. Now, the successful discovery of MK2 has astronomers hopeful that they may also find previously undetected satellites orbiting other large Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs).

Before findings MK2, researchers believed the fact that Makemake lacked a moon meant that it might have escaped a giant impact event during its past. Now, they plan to investigate its density to see if the moon was formed by such a collision, or if the object has been pulled in by the dwarf planet’s gravity. Based on the abundance of moons orbiting KBOs, the study authors believe that impact events are common among these dwarf planets.

The findings will also prove beneficial in other ways, Dr. Parker explained: “With a moon, we can calculate Makemake’s mass and density. We can contrast the orbits and properties of the parent dwarf and its moon, to understand the origin and history of the system. We can compare Makemake and its moon to other systems, and broaden our understanding of the processes that shaped the evolution of our solar system.”

 on: Jun 28, 2016, 10:20 AM 
Started by frespana - Last post by frespana
What does one person's Pluto conjunct other person's south node mean?

 on: Jun 28, 2016, 08:04 AM 
Started by Gonzalo - Last post by Gonzalo
Hola a todos los lectores,

Seguimos con este tópico sobre la Luna, el Ego y las distorsiones del ego patriarcal.

La Luna se correlaciona con las emociones, y con el cuerpo emocional. La lección última de este arquetipo es que la fuente de aquello que llamamos seguridad emocional, es interior al Self. La represión de la naturaleza emocional, creada por el orden patriarcal – Capricornio -  y las creencias creadas por los hombres para justificar esa represión, ha sido un factor determinante en la proyección de la seguridad emocional en fuentes externas: una posición o rol social, la pertenencia a un grupo mayor, una familia, otra persona. Sin embargo, existe la experiencia universal de que todas esas fuentes externas o proyectadas de seguridad emocional pueden ser removidas-Plutón. Esto significa que la seguridad emocional proyectada es ilusoria. Aun así, cuando esas fuentes de seguridad proyectada son removidas de formas plutonianas, el efecto común es que se produzca una intensa inseguridad, la cual se correlaciona con la Luna y con Plutón, Cáncer y Escorpio, la Casa IV y la Casa VIII.

Debido a que La Luna se correlaciona con la madre, y con la familia de nacimiento, este arquetipo se correlaciona con el impacto de las condiciones tempranas que existen en el entorno del niño, el entorno parental en que ocurre el desarrollo, en cómo se forma la personalidad.  Refleja los tipos de estados emocionales, basados en tipos de experiencias en el entorno temprano, a través de los cuales el individuo se ha subjetivado: tipos de experiencias a través de las cuales ha obtenido una sensación consciente de ser que están asociadas a imágenes de sí, y que en total constituyen una autoimagen y resultan familiares por los que proveen seguridad basada en la familiaridad.
A través de Cáncer, la Luna, la Casa IV, aprendemos auto-conocimiento emocional. Este aprendizaje se ve experiencialmente inducido por los estados internos emocionales, afectivos, y fisiológicos, que definen la naturaleza interna de la vida misma, momento a momento. Los estados internos que ocurren momento a momento – Luna - pueden tener grados relativos de intensidad, y el nivel de intensidad estará reflejado en la signatura natal a través del arquetipo de la Luna, la Casa IV, Cáncer, y/o Plutón, la Casa VIII, Escorpio.
Un ejemplo muy simple podría ser una conjunción Luna/Plutón. En algunos casos aquí existirá una intensidad máxima de estados emocionales, los cuales muchas veces son progresivamente ‘descubiertos’ por el propio nativo cuando ellos sean ‘gatillados’ en experiencias de la vida que amenazan, por lo menos desde un punto de vista subjetivo, su seguridad emocional y psicológica. Por ejemplo, es una signatura que implica potencialmente hiperactividad del sistema de memoria de la amígdala, basada en experiencias cataclísmicas emocionales o psicológicas de vidas anteriores y/o de la niñez en esta vida, ie. e entorno parental temprano, la madre. En algunos casos han pre-existido, y pueden recrearse en esta vida, experiencias de pérdida o abandono en relación con figuras maternas o cuidadores. En algunos casos no ha existido ‘pérdida’ o ‘abandono’ como tales, pero así lo ha experimentado la persona en su niñez, basado en la intensidad de sus estados internos preexistentes o memorias asociadas, incluso en casos en que la madre o la familia han sido acogedoras y han velado con amor por su bienestar. Otras veces la figura materna o alguien cercano han sido abusivas y así han amenazado el bienestar y el desarrollo del niño, produciendo intensa inseguridad emocional y afectando directamente la auto-imagen y el cuerpo emocional. Algunas veces la madre ha sido manipuladora, o haya sido experimentada como omnipotente. En algunos casos incluso, podrán existir abusos sexuales por parte de la madre. En muchos casos, ha existido una intensidad de estados emocionales-pensamientos, afectos, estados afectivos, niveles fisiológicos-en la madre, en la niñez y en la gestación. No es poco frecuente que a veces han existido emociones negativas, o pensamientos negativos en relación con el bebé o el niño, ya sea provenientes directamente de la madre, o de alguien más en la familia. Hay que tener presente que los bebés y los niños pequeños no tienen un ego formado, y no tienen un sentido de límites. Su ‘auto-imagen’ es dependiente del entorno emocional de la madre y la familia. Así, absorben los estados emocionales del entorno como si fueran propios. Los estados emocionales han sido internalizados por el individuo, pero no se encuentran resueltos, y por lo tanto, potencialmente serán asociados o gatillados por dinámicas de su propia vida, a fin de acceder conscientemente – Luna - a la intensidad de esos estados internos.

Debido a que esos estados emocionales internos no se encuentran resueltos, ellos pueden manifestarse a través de una necesidad de intensidad en ciertas dinámicas interpersonales, relaciones-la cuadratura natural entre Cáncer y Libra -a través de escenas, displays y ‘pataletas’, o toda clase de manipulaciones emocionales y psicológicas. A la vez, los individuos pueden atraer a otros individuos que manifiestan esas dinámicas para ellos. Por ejemplo, otros individuos que exijan una atención irrestricta, planteen una demanda de atención y nutrición que nunca se satisface ni se reconoce, o sean manipuladores o intenten controlar o herir emocional o psicológicamente al individuo. Esos individuos monitorean momento a momento su entorno emocional inmediato, como sea que este se defina para ellos, en busca de cualquier elemento que no esté ‘en su punto’ o que, de cualquier manera, desafíe o amenace sus proyecciones de seguridad o su auto-imagen.  Si eso es percibido, incluso de forma subconsciente, se activarán intensos estados emocionales en respuesta. De esa forma, estarán potencialmente en muchos casos, recreando estados emocionales no resueltos de la niñez.
Todos estos tipos de experiencias han creado intensas dinámicas emocionales que en algunos casos han alcanzado niveles extremos – dependiendo del simbolismo de la carta natal. Estos individuos necesitan ‘apagarse’ emocionalmente en forma cíclica para recargarse, y experimentar ‘muertes’ simbólicas para regenerarse.   

Cuando existe una conexión de este tipo entre los arquetipos de Plutón y la Luna en la carta, como Plutón/Luna o Plutón en la Casa IV, etc., preexiste una intención evolutiva en curso que es hacer una metamorfosis – Plutón – de la estructura del ego o personalidad, en función de las necesidades de su Alma y la naturaleza interior de su Alma, en vez de que sea el ego quien pretende controlar las variables externas de las que depende su seguridad o su auto-imagen.  Este proceso involucra profundas dimensiones psicológicas porque lo que está siendo removido son fijaciones en la estructura del ego que están en pie porque directamente representan seguridad psicológica de fondo para el Alma. A la vez, puede involucrar aspectos muy dolorosos o difíciles psicológicamente. Muchas veces, los contenidos internos estarán periódicamente irrumpiendo o erupcionando en la psique consciente, a veces superando los recursos normales o conocidos del individuo para ‘vérselas’ con ellas, e induciendo o forzando necesarios, nuevos niveles de auto-conocimiento. 

La intención evolutiva implícita en el arquetipo de Cáncer, la Casa IV, es que se desplace el foco de la conciencia en la búsqueda de seguridad o contención, hacia el interior del individuo, en vez de proyectarla en alguien o algo exterior. En el Zodíaco natural Cáncer – el ego/personalidad - está en trígono con Escorpio – el Alma – y en trígono con Piscis – la Fuente del Alma, el Creador de todas las Cosas. De una forma similar a como el Alma es creada por su Fuente, el ego encarnado es creado por el Alma en cada vida. Y a la vez, el individuo puede, conscientemente, abrazar los deseos de internalizar la conciencia dentro de si y satisfacer sus propias necesidades emocionales, integrando progresivamente el cuerpo emocional y así penetrando capas cada vez más profundas de autoconocimiento. Con el tiempo, la internalización y profundización del foco de la conciencia del ego en el Alma, permite integrar más del Alma en el ego o auto-imagen, lo cual a su vez conduce a su tiempo a percibir interiormente a la Fuente del Alma. Esto es lo que se llama en la AE, la Trinidad del Agua: Cáncer, Escorpio, Piscis. En térmicos de la seguridad emocional que alguien puede buscar, esta Trinidad enseña que en definitiva, cualquier seguridad proyectada es ilusoria. Por lo tanto, no existe realmente la seguridad emocional sobre una base realista. Sí puede existir en algunos casos, cuando la personalidad de un Alma se forma consistentemente de manera sana en un entorno nutritivo, una confianza básica de que las cosas tendrían que salir bien. Pero la seguridad como tal es ilusoria, y lo que es real es la inseguridad. Aceptar este hecho experiencial es necesario para buscar interiormente la Fuente de la conciencia, la Fuente del Alma, a fin de unirse – Escorpio – a esa Fuente – Piscis. 

Como dije, las dinámicas emocionales y psicológicas de fondo simbolizadas en la conjunción o aspecto Plutón/Luna, serán en cada caso relativas a la configuración de la carta natal individual, y especialmente al eje evolutivo principal de la carta natal: Plutón y su punto de polaridad, los Nodos Lunares, los planetas regentes de los nodos, y los aspectos de estos y demás planetas al eje nodal. Esto se debe a que Plutón y el eje evolutivo principal de la carta se correlaciona con los tipos de deseos de fondo que han existido en todas las vidas pasadas que han llegado a la vida presente, y por ello reflejan cómo el individuo ha creado su propia realidad en total. Por poner un ejemplo simplificado, supongamos que existe una conjunción Plutón/Luna en la Casa X. El punto de partida, el primer bloque de significado para interpretar la carta natal, será el arquetipo de Plutón en la Casa X. Con Plutón en la Casa X, podemos saber que han existido en el Alma, en un ciclo evolutivo nuevo o reciente – arquetipo cardinal - deseos de fondo de establecer el propio sentido de autoridad en relación con un contexto social. Debido a los deseos de tener autoridad o liderazgo en los términos aceptados por la sociedad de nacimiento, el individuo puede muchas veces tomar para sí mucho de las formas de ser de esa sociedad. Debido a la existencia de tales tipos de deseos, muchos individuos pueden nacer a través de familias biológicas, en esa serie de vidas, en la cual su naturaleza emocional no será tomada en cuenta cuando niño. Esto se basa en que el individuo puede elegir nacer a través de familias que promuevan una disposición emocional que contribuya al ‘éxito’ del individuo en términos sociales, y que por lo tanto serán altamente represivas o enjuiciadoras respecto a la forma natural de ser del niño. Estos individuos, por estas razones, nacen en la vida presente con altos niveles de represión emocional. La vida emocional interior de estos individuos será altamente reprimida, y existirán profundos temores asociados a las dinámicas de enjuiciamiento. El individuo desarrollará una autoimagen de responsabilidad y auto-exigencia, consigo mismo y con otras personas muchas veces, incluso si no se permite pedir la ayuda de otros prefiriendo tener relaciones de naturaleza más bien jerárquica con otras personas. Será altamente exigente y muchas veces se castigará a si mismo o a otros si no están a la atura de sus estándares artificiales. A veces las dinámicas de enjuiciamiento pre-existentes pueden ser tan intensas, que el individuo pude totalmente rehuir cualquier potencial situación que represente la posibilidad de que sus dinámicas interiores reprimidas se hagan visibles. El temor se basa en el pensamiento ‘qué implicaría esto de mi’. Existirán dentro de las manipulaciones emocionales, intensas manipulaciones y/ o confrontaciones emocionales que van a involucrar a otras personas en el terreno de la carrera. Muchas veces esas confrontaciones reflejarán el impacto en el individuo de las formas de ser propias del consenso social de su sociedad de nacimiento. A través de esas confrontaciones y manipulaciones, de uno u otro lado, el individuo podrá devenir consciente e integrar estados emocionales y dinámicas que lo han orientado subconscientemente en sus deseos de avanzar, o que se han creado a través de su carrera. A la vez, el darse cuenta consciente de estas dinámicas permitirá la integración emocional si el individuo avanza en la intención de hacerse responsable de las consecuencias de sus propios actos y de sus estados internos – una intención fundamental de Plutón en la Casa X. Ello demandará que el individuo devenga consciente de cómo las dinámicas causales en tales confrontaciones o manipulaciones están asociadas a estados emocionales no resueltos provenientes de la niñez, al impacto de estos en la autoimagen, a las expectativas de corrección provenientes de la familia o la sociedad, o al impacto de dinámicas de enjuiciamiento basado en morales del consenso social. El individuo podrá comprender cómo todo esto ha condicionado los parámetros que definen las bases de sus juicios y su orientación a la carrera o a la realidad en general, al limitar su acceso a su propia realidad interior reprimida.

En la medida en que el individuo abrace la polaridad simbolizada en este caso por la Casa IV, y reflexione sobre el impacto del entorno parental temprano, y de la sociedad o la cultura por extensión, en cómo se ha construido emocional y psicológicamente a sí mismo, podrá reformular su autoimagen y devenir acogedor de si mismo y de otras personas. Al aprender que la seguridad emocional que buscan no depende en último término de su estatus o rol social, podrán avanzar hacia crear una autoimagen y un tipo de ego que sean consistente con lo que realmente son, en vez de cómo se supone que deben ser desde un punto de vista de los valores, estándares o creencias de su sociedad.

Si alguien quiere hacer preguntas, por favor siéntase libre de hacerlo. 

Bendiciones, Gonzalo

 on: Jun 28, 2016, 06:49 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Maya
Hi Rad,

What could be the meaning of the South Node of Venus square the natal Pluto? I can imagine if the South Node of Venus is in Scorpio, conj. the South Node of Mars in the second house   square natal Pluto in 11 in Virgo , traumatic relationships were created by the soul in order to gain the self-reliance.


 on: Jun 28, 2016, 06:26 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Hi Skywalker,

Right now I am just asking those participating in this thread, at this stage, to do this on their own instead of submitting an analysis of themselves.

If any questions occur about how to do this as we go along in these next steps then of course I would welcome those questions.

God Bless, Rad

 on: Jun 28, 2016, 06:23 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Manta Rays Prefer Staycations Over Long Migrations

Oceanic manta rays travel long distances much less often than previously believed—with major implications for the species’ conservation.

Scientists have found that oceanic manta rays (Manta birostris) usually live their lives in distinct, local subpopulations, changing how conservationists approach protecting the mysterious fish species.

By Michael Greshko
National Geographic
PUBLISHED June 28, 2016

It turns out that humans aren’t the only species weary of long commutes: A new study reveals that manta rays living in the open ocean prefer staying close to home, rather than migrating over long distances.

The findings, based on years of tracking data, tissue samples, and genetic tests, are the latest to overturn long-held ideas about how the giant, mysterious fish eke out a living—and how they should be protected from overfishing.

Bigger than their reef-dwelling relatives, oceanic manta rays (Manta birostris) grow up to 23 feet (7 meters) wide and weigh up to 4,440 pounds (2 metric tons). They filter their food out of the water, snacking on plankton, fish eggs, krill, and occasionally small fish.

Scientists had long thought that oceanic manta rays migrated thousands of miles around the world to follow shifts in the distribution of their food, similar to the movements of other pelagic, or open-ocean, filter feeders such as baleen whales and whale sharks. Previous studies had even documented individual manta rays traveling hundreds of miles at a time.

Find out more about the mysterious migration of the world’s biggest fish:

“We sort of assumed that they were behaving the same way that other large pelagic species do,” says lead author Josh Stewart, a Ph.D. student at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego. (Stewart's work was supported in part by the National Geographic Society/Waitt Grants Program.)

But when Stewart and his colleagues used satellite tags to track 18 manta rays at sites in Mexico and Indonesia for up to six months at a time, they found that manta rays were far from long-distance travelers.

On the contrary, they seemed to prefer a short commute.

The tracking data, published Monday in Biological Conservation, indicated that 95 percent of the time, the manta rays at each site stayed in patches of ocean as small as 140 miles (220 kilometers) across and rarely if ever journeyed outside of them.

In Mexico, for instance, mantas tagged near the Revillagigedo Islands—some 373 miles (600 kilometers) off the country’s Pacific coast—never ventured to the coast, and vice versa.

And when the researchers analyzed tiny muscle samples taken from each tagged manta, they found that the mantas in each location had their own genetic and dietary quirks—shooting down the idea that they regularly traveled and mixed with other populations.

“The results are surprising, especially when considering the mantas off Mexico [and] that the overlap between populations isn't greater,” says Lydie Couturier, a manta expert at France’s Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer who wasn’t involved with the study.

Protecting the Gentle Giants

Couturier and Stewart say that the findings have major conservation implications for the species, which is currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Manta rays are frequently caught as bycatch and are hunted for their gill plates, a popular ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine.

“If you had a fishery that was drawing from the entire population of Indo-Pacific mantas, then killing 10 to a hundred mantas a year wouldn’t be a huge number, necessarily,” says Stewart. “But if there are these very local, isolated subpopulations, then you’re talking about removing half of the population in a year.”

Paradoxically, that vulnerability may also bring benefits, by intensifying pressure on regional and local governments to conserve mantas on their own.

Currently, oceanic mantas are protected mainly by two international agreements: CITES, which forbids the international trade of wild manta-based products, and the Convention on Migratory Species, which provides a framework for international agreements on manta conservation.

Both treaties have had their successes, says Stewart, but they are difficult to enforce because of the large numbers of countries involved. Local and regional agreements, however, have fewer stakeholders—speeding up the adoption of conservation protections.

“If we can see that there are discrete subpopulations within Mexican waters, that would enable Mexico as one country to protect breeding, sustainable pockets of these animals themselves,” says Guy Stevens, the founder and chief executive of the conservation nonprofit Manta Trust, which supported the research. “That doesn’t require any international agreement. They can get on with it [and] protect these animals.”

This kind of local-first strategy already has borne fruit. In 2013, conservation groups, including the Manta Trust, worked with the local government of Raja Ampat, an archipelago in northeast Indonesia, to create Indonesia’s first shark and manta ray sanctuary.

But more work remains, especially to figure out how manta rays survive by staying in one place while their similarly filter-feeding peers opt for wider travels.

Another Stewart-authored study, published in May in Zoology, suggests that manta rays instead travel vertically, swimming into deeper waters periodically to make their diets more varied. That hunch won’t be confirmed until researchers have video of the mantas’ feeding behaviors—a project National Geographic is currently supporting with its Crittercam initiative.

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