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 on: May 25, 2015, 05:16 AM 
Started by Steve - Last post by Rad
Cave deposits record prehistoric climate

May 24, 2015
Chuck Bednar for – @BednarChuck

By studying mineral cave deposits known as speleothems, experts from Vanderbilt University, the Berkeley Geochronology Center in California, and elsewhere are learning more about what prehistoric climate was like and how it changed over the years.

The research team, led by Vanderbilt assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences Jessica Oster, is analyzing the past five decades of growth of a stalagmite located in the Mawmluh Cave in the northeastern Indian state of Meghalaya, a region often referred to as the rainiest place on Earth.

Water from rainfall collected calcium carbonate and other types of minerals, and it leaves behind mineral deposits as it drips into caves. Mineral layers grow during wet periods, and form dusty skins during dry periods. The researchers used this knowledge to collect data about precipitation cycles in the region.

Comparing cave data to historical records

In a paper published in the May 19 edition of the journal Geophysical Research Letters, Oster and her co-authors compared their findings to historical records in India, which suggested that reduced monsoon rainfall in the central part of the country occurred when sea-surface temperatures in parts of the Pacific Ocean were warmer than usual.

Naturally-recurring sea-surface temperature “anomalies”  such as the El Niño Modoki and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, cause huge differences in precipitation amount and temperature. When the team analyzed the Mawmluh stalagmites, they found that their predicted results matched up consistently with the historical records.

For example, during a year where El Niño caused localized storm activity, the researchers found mineral chemistry signals in the cave to support these events. During non-El Niño periods, the data revealed that the water traveled much farther before it fell and seeped into the cave, typical of monsoon activity.

“Now that we have shown that the Mawmluh cave record agrees with the instrumental record for the last 50 years, we hope to use it to investigate relationships between the Indian monsoon and El Niño during prehistoric times such as the Holocene,” Oster said in a statement.

 on: May 25, 2015, 05:14 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Birds shake nuts to choose the best ones

May 23, 2015
Chuck Bednar for – @BednarChuck

Cracking a nut is difficult, so how do animals make sure that they don’t waste effort on a snack that winds up being tiny or rotten?

In research published recently in the Journal of Ornithology, an international team led by experts from the Seoul National University’s Laboratory of Behavioral Ecology and Evolution watched a group of Mexican Jays (Aphelocoma wollweberi) living in Arizona to see how they selected nuts from a feeder and if they had any tricks that helped them avoid getting bad ones.

They found that the birds may be able to “weigh” nuts, and possibly even “listen” to them as they handle the nuts in their beaks. The study authors spent several hours observing the behavior of the jays as they delicately broke open the shells of hundreds of peanuts, changing the contents and presenting them to the birds to see if the creatures could tell the difference.

Sound plays a role in the evaluation process

The researchers conducted a series of experiments, including one in which some of the peanuts presented to the jays were empty. Even though the pods looked identical on the outside, “we noticed that after picking them up the birds rejected the empty ones and accepted the full peanuts, without opening them,” said corresponding author Dr. Sang-im Lee of Seoul National University.

In another experiment, the birds were presented with two different nuts that looked the same, but had a one gram difference in weight. This revealed that the jays were able to distinguish between the two, and they favored the heavier nuts.

Researchers then took peanuts of different sizes and equalized their weight. The authors found that jays preferred the smaller peanuts, even though the two pods weighed the same. Researcher Dr. Elzbieta Fuszara explained that the birds could tell that the larger pods did not weigh as much as they should and rejected them on this basis.

The researchers plan to continue their experiments in order to better understand how these animals interact with their environment and find food.

 on: May 25, 2015, 04:40 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Skywalker
Hi Rad,

I´m interested in this topic as well.

Thank you

All the best

 on: May 24, 2015, 03:22 PM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Linda
Hi Rad,

I'm glad we are resuming this topic

and I would love to be a part of it.



 on: May 24, 2015, 02:33 PM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Upasika
Hi Rad

I'm totally into this.

blessings Upasika

 on: May 24, 2015, 02:27 PM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Kristin
 Hi Rad,

I love this idea as I was not able to participate last time. I am interested in learning the simple approach.  Smiley


 on: May 24, 2015, 11:51 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Sunyata
Has it been discussed somewhere the effects of Uranus as it transits through the houses, crosses into a new house etc?


 on: May 24, 2015, 10:26 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Hi All,

 Geodetic equivalents can be a very useful tool in understanding the prior life localities/ cultures in EA. So am wondering how many would like to work together in this thread to understand what geodetic equivalents are, and how to use them in EA work. Let me know. We did a thread on geodetic equivalents around 2011 that can be accessed by way of the search button. I would like to do this again so as to make it more simple and less confusing that it was before. So if you are interested let me know. 

God Bless, Rad

To All:

It is very important that we know that this material, this topic, is copyrighted by Jeffrey Wolf Green as he worked on this for thirty years of his life, and taught it in various places.

 on: May 24, 2015, 10:22 AM 
Started by Gonzalo - Last post by Michael B
Hi Gonzalo,

Just read your post of Aug.28 2014. I am an evolutionary astrologer and live and work in Holland. My email address is:


 on: May 24, 2015, 08:54 AM 
Started by Rad - Last post by Rad
Pig Putin enacts law banning ‘undesirable’ NGOs

Agence France-Presse
23 May 2015 at 22:06 ET 

Russian President Vladimir Putin officially enacted a controversial law banning “undesirable” non-governmental organisations, the Kremlin said Saturday, in a move condemned by human rights groups across the board.

The law allows authorities to bar foreign civil society groups seen as threatening Russia’s “defence capabilities” or “constitutional foundations” and go after local activists working with them, the Kremlin statement said.

Supporters presented the law as a “preventative measure”, necessary after the wave of Western sanctions put in place over the Ukraine conflict.

Under the law, passed by the Russian parliament this week, authorities can ban foreign NGOs and go after their employees, who risk up to six years in prison or being barred from the country.

It also allows them to block the bank accounts of the organisations until the NGOs “account for their actions” to the Russian authorities.

Lawmakers cited the need to stop “destructive organisations” working in Russia, which could threaten the “value of the Russian state” and stir up “colour revolutions”, the name given to pro-Western movements seen in some former Soviet republics over the last several years.

Critics have said that the vague wording of the law — which gives Russia’s general prosecutor the right to impose the “undesirable” tag without going to court — could allow officials to target foreign businesses working in Russia.

Amnesty International called it “the last chapter in the unprecedented repression against non-governmental organisations.”

The measure complements legislation already passed in 2012, which forces NGOs that receive foreign funds to register as a “foreign agent.”

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