December 5, 2016
New sugar formula could cut sugar in candy by 40 percent
by Brett Smith
Swiss candy maker Nestle has developed a novel way of processing sugar that would allow it to cut the amount of the sweetener used in its chocolate bars by 40 percent, according to a recent statement from the company.
Nestle said the process causes sugar to break down faster so that less can be used and the tongue cannot detect a different degree of sweetness. The company added that it intends to patent the method uncovered by its researchers, which will allow it to lower the sugar content in many of its products.
While the patent process has prevented the company for describing its method in specifics, Nestle officials said their new method essentially maintains the same exterior of a sugar crystal while having less sugar on the interior. The company said it will begin implementing the new process in 2018.
“This truly groundbreaking research is inspired by nature and has the potential to reduce sugar by up to 40 percent in our confectionery,” said Stefan Catsicas, Nestlé’s chief technology officer. “Our scientists have discovered a completely new way to use a traditional, natural ingredient.”
Key in the Fight Against Obesity
Sugar has been singled out for fuelling the international obesity epidemic and proliferation of metabolic disease. While the change at Nestle could have a significant positive impact in the battle against these conditions, some experts have said they are skeptical about just how much of an impact this change might have.
“Reducing sugar is the holy grail of food companies these days — but does it work?” asked New York University food scientist Marion Nestle, who has no familial connection to the candy company. She noted that candy doesn’t even make up the largest portion of sugar the average person’s diet.
“That’s soda, and then what the Department of Agriculture calls grain-based desserts,” she said.
The company said it may eventually sell its novel sugar to other food companies for use in their products, but Catsicas noted that it probably won’t be available on store shelves.
“(I)t is not something that can be mixed into your coffee,” he said, according to the New York Times.
on: Dec 05, 2016, 05:59 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
on: Dec 05, 2016, 05:57 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
December 5, 2016
Researchers find link between gut bacteria and Parkinson’s disease
by Chuck Bednar
Scientists from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have discovered a link between gut bacteria and Parkinson’s disease that could bring them one step closer to finding the cause of the nervous system disorder and potentially opening a new avenue for treatment.
The study, published Thursday in the journal Cell, found that intestinal microbes, or changes within those bacteria, contribute to and could potentially even be the cause of motor dysfunctions associated with Parkinson’s, Healthline and the Pasadena Star-News reported this week.
Patients suffering from Parkinson’s experience an accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein or αSyn within cells in the brain, as well as cytokines (inflammatory molecules) in the brain itself. In addition, approximately three-fourths of them experience gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities, primarily constipation, prior to the appearance of other symptoms, the study authors said.
Because of this, researchers have long theorized that GI tract or gut bacteria were related to the decline in motor skills in Parkinson’s patients. The new study provides evidence to support that notion by proving that such symptoms appeared in mice after they received a transplant of fecal bacteria from humans suffering from the degenerative neurological condition.
Microbe-less mice performed better on motor function tests
As lead author Dr. Sarkis Mazmanian, a microbiologist at Caltech as well as an investigator at the Heritage Medical Research Institute, explained in a statement, “The gut is a permanent home to a diverse community of beneficial and sometimes harmful bacteria, known as the microbiome, that is important for the development and function of the immune and nervous systems.”
“Remarkably, 70% of all neurons in the peripheral nervous system – that is, not the brain or spinal cord – are in the intestines, and the gut's nervous system is directly connected to the central nervous system through the vagus nerve,” he added. “Because GI problems often precede the motor symptoms by many years, and because most PD cases are caused by environmental factors, we hypothesized that bacteria in the gut may contribute to PD.”
To put their hypothesis to the test, Dr. Mazmanian and his colleagues used mice subjects which tended to overproduce αSyn and display symptoms of Parkinson's disease. They divided the mice into two groups: one with a complex array of gut bacteria, and another that were bred in a sterile environment and which lacked GI microbes. Both groups underwent several tests to demonstrate their motor skills. The bacteria-less group performed significantly better.
“This was the 'eureka' moment,” said Timothy Sampson, a postdoctoral scholar in biology and biological engineering and first author of the new paper. “The mice were genetically identical; both groups were making too much αSyn. The only difference was the presence or absence of gut microbiota. Once you remove the microbiome, the mice have normal motor skills even with the overproduction of αSyn. All three of the hallmark traits of Parkinson's were gone.”
Discovery could lead to new, microbiome-based treatments
Now confident that GI tract bacteria “regulate, and are even required for, the symptoms of PD,” Sampson said that the researchers set out to determine exactly why this was the case. Since gut bacteria produce molecules known as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that can activate immune responses in the brain when they break down dietary fiber, they started looking there.
Feeding SCFAs to the bacteria-free mice resulted the activation of immune cells in the brain, as well as motor disabilities and αSyn aggregation in regions of the brain linked to Parkinson’s, the researchers explained. In another set of experiments, they obtained fecal samples from patients with the disease and transplanted them into the microbe-free group of mice. Those mice began to show symptoms of Parkinson’s and had elevated levels of SCFAs in their feces.
Uncovering the cause of Parkinson's disease is a big step towards finding a cure. (Credit: Unsplash/Huy Phan)
“This really closed the loop for us,” said Mazmanian. “The data suggest that changes to the gut microbiome are likely more than just a consequence of PD. It's a provocative finding that needs to be further studied, but the fact that you can transplant the microbiome from humans to mice and transfer symptoms suggests that bacteria are a major contributor to disease.”
“For many neurological conditions, the conventional treatment approach is to get a drug into the brain. However, if PD is indeed not solely caused by changes in the brain but instead by changes in the microbiome, then you may just have to get drugs into the gut to help patients, which is much easier to do,” he concluded. “This new concept may lead to safer therapies with fewer side effects compared to current treatments.”
on: Dec 05, 2016, 04:25 AM
|Started by Artemis_pluto - Last post by Artemis_pluto|
Hi I'm new to the forum. I have done my readings on Evolutionary Astrology Books 1 and 2 and have viewed Mr. Greene's videos in the Internet.
My query is about SYNASTRY, am now in a relationship with heavy Sun- Pluto Interaspects. His Pluto is Conjunct my Sun in Virgo, in the fourth house. My Virgo Pluto is square his Sun in Gemini. Needless to say, it is emotionally intense. We trigger our inner wounds of the past in this lifetime, and I'm sure in previous lives. The intensity we try to keep under control, but when it manifests itself can be scary, so we have this Push- Pull activity going on all the time. Projections and obsessions abound. There is also a feeling of No Escape.
As an additional info, my Pluto is Conjunct my Moonin Virgo; and His Virgo Pluto is square his Mars in Gemini. Our Gemini Mars are Conjunct.
My question is: in Evolutionary Astrology sense, what Is the purpose when Pluto and Sun are heavily inter-aspected between two people? What sort of karma do we bring upon each other to resolve in this lifetime? How can we best make of the situation without scaring each other off, I mean how can we prevent from running away from the heavy lessons each bring to one another? Thank you and I am glad to have found this forum.
on: Dec 04, 2016, 08:06 PM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Sree|
Thanks for your feedback....it really helps
If she had fame when she had this father who was critical;then her rising to fame surely ,according to normal norms,would have occurred at a relatively young age ( around 20 to 30).And any form of fame within society can make a consensus person (here her father)to easily brings acceptance to whoever holds that fame - ie the father would have accepted her fame and stop being critical towards her (especially as she become more independent financially due to this fame). If not then what is within this father that make him continue with this attitude.If yes (father become non critical)then what would be the dynamics she face further in her life to continue her evolution (- to be equal among others).Is it that the effort (virgo) to hold the fame based on the projection (12th) of the society( Saturn) that becomes the dynamics she faces further in her life for evolution to continue.
on: Dec 04, 2016, 10:20 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by firstname.lastname@example.org|
RAD The commoners typically are ‘sacrificed’ by the rich and powerful for their own superior purposes. Thus, her soul, to recover skipped steps, has desired to be born into a common family in order to atone for the natural guilt that was born in those lifetimes.
Got it. I see now how my wild imagination* went too far with "sacrifice".
Looking forward to all the learning...
*Got once again mired in my Neptune skipped step, with my SoNode conj Uranus. But it is the resolution node as well - and really reforming my understanding of Astrology to EA - is my goal. It's ongoing, and I remain committed to eradicating whatever is not EA, so I look forward to your council. JWG is the best thing that ever happened to my astrological life. EA is pure, genius and grace, and I hold EA as the holy grail.
Blessings appreciated and returning...
on: Dec 03, 2016, 08:21 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by dollydaydream|
Kristin, thanks for the update on Shaw. DDD
on: Dec 03, 2016, 07:28 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
US veterans build barracks for pipeline protesters in cold North Dakota winter
02 Dec 2016 at 19:10 ET
U.S. military veterans were building barracks on Friday at a protest camp in North Dakota to support thousands of activists who have squared off against authorities in frigid conditions to oppose a multibillion-dollar pipeline project near a Native American reservation.
Veterans volunteering to be human shields have been arriving at the Oceti Sakowin camp near the small town of Cannon Ball, where they will work with protesters who have spent months demonstrating against plans to route the Dakota Access Pipeline beneath a lake near the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation, organizers said.
The Native Americans and protesters say the $3.8 billion pipeline threatens water resources and sacred sites.
Some of the more than 2,100 veterans who signed up on the Veterans Stand for Standing Rock group’s Facebook page are at the camp, with hundreds more expected during the weekend. Tribal leaders asked the veterans, who aim to form a wall in front of police to protect the protesters, to avoid confrontation with authorities and not get arrested.
Wesley Clark Jr, a writer whose father is retired U.S. Army General Wesley Clark, met with law enforcement on Friday to tell them potentially 3,500 veterans would join the protest and the demonstrations would be carried out peacefully, protest leaders said.
The plan is for veterans to gather in Eagle Butte, a few hours away, and then travel by bus to the main protest camp, organizers said, adding that a big procession is planned for Monday.
Protesters began setting up tents, tepees and other structures in April and the numbers swelled in August at the main camp.
Joshua Tree, 42, from Los Angeles, who has been visiting the camp for weeks at a time since September, said he felt pulled to the protest.
“Destiny called me here,” he said at the main camp. “We’re committed.”
Those voices have been heard by companies linked to the pipeline as well, including banks that have been targeted by protesters for their financing of the pipeline.
Wells Fargo & Co said in a Thursday letter it would meet with Standing Rock elders before Jan. 1 “to discuss their concerns related to Wells Fargo’s investment” in the project.
There have been violent confrontations near the route of the pipeline with state and local law enforcement, who used tear gas, rubber bullets and water hoses on the protesters, even in freezing weather.
The number of protesters in recent weeks has topped 1,000. State officials on Monday ordered them to leave the snowy camp, which is on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers land, citing harsh weather, but on Wednesday they said they would not enforce the order.
“There is an element there of people protesting who are frightening,” North Dakota Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem said on Thursday. “It’s time for them to go home.”
Morton County Sheriff Kyle Kirchmeier spoke by phone on Friday with U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch, but assistance for law enforcement and a timeline for a resolution to the situation were not offered, the sheriff’s office said.
“It’s time for more actions from the federal government, not more words,” Kirchmeier said in a statement.
U.S. President-elect Donald Trump said on Thursday he supported the completion of the pipeline and his transition team also said he supported peaceful protests.
North Dakota Governor Jack Dalrymple said on Wednesday it was “probably not feasible” to reroute the pipeline but he would try to rebuild a relationship with Standing Rock Sioux leaders.
On Friday, Morton County Commission Chairman Cody Schulz said his office has been working in conjunction with the governor’s office to meet with tribal leaders soon.
Since the start of demonstrations, 564 people have been arrested, the Morton County Sheriff’s Department said.
State officials never contemplated forcibly removing protesters, and Dalrymple said his evacuation order stemmed mainly from concerns about dangerously cold temperatures.
The temperature in Cannon Ball is expected to fall to 4 degrees Fahrenheit (-16 Celsius) by the middle of next week, according to Weather.com forecasts.
The 1,172-mile (1,885-km) pipeline project, owned by Texas-based Energy Transfer Partners LP , is mostly complete, except for a segment planned to run under Lake Oahe, a reservoir formed by a dam on the Missouri River.
Protesters, who refer to themselves as “water protectors,” have been gearing up for the winter while they await the Army Corps decision on whether to allow Energy Transfer to tunnel under the river. The Army Corps has twice delayed that decision.
(Additional reporting by Timothy Mclaughlin in Chicago and David Gaffen in New York; Editing by Bill Trott and Matthew Lewis)
on: Dec 03, 2016, 07:15 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
Unless any of you have more questions, or wish to add to what we have been doing in this current step we are in, we will continue on starting next Monday: December 5th.
God Bless, Rad
on: Dec 03, 2016, 07:14 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
Let's continue on.
God Bless, Rad
on: Dec 03, 2016, 07:09 AM
|Started by Rad - Last post by Rad|
Global Warming Alters Arctic Food Chain, Scientists Say, With Unforeseeable Results
The Arctic Ocean may seem remote and forbidding, but to birds, whales and other animals, it’s a top-notch dining destination.
“It’s a great place to get food in the summertime, so animals are flying or swimming thousands of miles to get there,” said Kevin R. Arrigo, a biological oceanographer at Stanford University.
But the menu is changing. Confirming earlier research, scientists reported Wednesday that global warming is altering the ecology of the Arctic Ocean on a huge scale.
The annual production of algae, the base of the food web, increased an estimated 47 percent between 1997 and 2015, and the ocean is greening up much earlier each year.
These changes are likely to have a profound impact for animals further up the food chain, such as birds, seals, polar bears and whales. But scientists still don’t know enough about the biology of the Arctic Ocean to predict what the ecosystem will look like in decades to come.
While global warming has affected the whole planet in recent decades, nowhere has been hit harder than the Arctic. This month, temperatures in the high Arctic have been as much as 36 degrees above average, according to records kept by the Danish Meteorological Institute.
The issue can be overwhelming. The science is complicated. We get it. This is your cheat sheet.
In October, the extent of sea ice was 28.5 percent below average — the lowest for the month since scientists began keeping records in 1979. The area of missing ice is the size of Alaska and Texas put together.
Since the mid-2000s, researchers like Dr. Arrigo have been trying to assess the effects of retreating ice on the Arctic ecosystem.
The sun returns to the Arctic each spring and melts some of the ice that formed in winter. Algae in the open water quickly spring to life and start growing.
These algae are the base of the food chain in the Arctic Ocean, grazed by krill and other invertebrates that in turn support bigger fish, mammals and birds.
Dr. Arrigo and his colleagues visited the Arctic in research ships to examine algae in the water and to determine how it affected the water’s color. They then reviewed satellite images of the Arctic Ocean, relying on the color of the water to estimate how much algae was growing — what scientists call the ocean’s productivity.
The sea’s productivity was rapidly increasing, Dr. Arrigo found. Last year he and his colleagues published their latest update, estimating that the productivity of the Arctic rose 30 percent between 1998 and 2012.
But Mati Kahru, an oceanographer at the University of California, San Diego, was skeptical. As an expert on remote sensing, he knew how hard it is to get a reliable picture of the Arctic Ocean.
The ocean is notoriously cloudy, and algae are not the only thing that tinting the water. Rivers deliver tea-colored organic matter into the Arctic Ocean, which can give the impression that there’s more algae in the water than is actually there.
Dr. Kahru and his colleagues decided to take an independent look, scouring satellite databases for images taken from 1997 to 2015 — “every image available,” he said.
The scientists used a mathematical equation to determine how the color in each pixel of each image was determined by algae, runoff, and other factors. Dr. Kahru decided that Dr. Arrigo was right: The Arctic Ocean has become vastly more productive.
Marcel Babin, an oceanographer at Université Laval in Quebec who was not involved in the new study, said that the researchers had done “very careful work” that confirmed the earlier studies. “It’s an important finding,” he said.
Not only is the Arctic Ocean producing more algae, but it’s doing so sooner each year. “These blooms are coming earlier, sometimes two months earlier,” Dr. Kahru said.
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In fact, the bloom may be coming even sooner than satellites can record. On research cruises, Dr. Arrigo and his colleagues have found that open water is no longer a requirement for algae to grow.
The ice has gotten so thin that sunlight reaches through it. “Now they’re not even waiting for the ice to melt,” said Dr. Arrigo said of algal organisms.
If we stay on our current course, pouring more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, the Arctic will only get warmer, perhaps becoming ice-free in the summer. If algae can find more nitrogen and other nutrients in the ocean, its productivity may continue to rise.
Scientists can’t yet say what the ecological effects of this transformation will be. “It is probable it will have an impact on the whole food web,” Dr. Babin said.
Dr. Babin and his colleagues have been studying that impact over the past two summers on an expedition called the Green Edge Project, which has studied the ecology in Baffin Bay off the coast of northern Canada. They hope to present the first results of the survey next year.
Some species may thrive because they can graze on the extra algae. But if the ecosystem comes to life earlier in the year, many species may be left behind.
Fish larvae may not be able to develop fast enough. Migrating whales and birds may show up too late. A lot of the extra algae may drop to the sea floor by then, untouched.
“It’s going to be a different Arctic unless we turn things around,” said Dr. Arrigo.