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Author Topic: ENVIRONMENT, CLIMATE, GLOBAL WARMING, AND CULTURE  (Read 1446754 times)
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Darja
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« Reply #3810 on: Oct 12, 2018, 04:32 AM »


Man held over killing of Bulgarian journalist 'admits attacking her'

Prosecutors say 21-year-old denies raping or intending to kill Viktoria Marinova

Associated Press in Berlin
Fri 12 Oct 2018 11.16 BST

A 21-year-old man arrested over the killing of a Bulgarian television journalist has confessed to attacking her, but denies raping and robbing her, German prosecutors have said.

Severin Krasimirov, a Bulgarian citizen, was apprehended on Tuesday evening outside Hamburg on a European arrest warrant in connection with the death of Viktoria Marinova.

Marinova’s body was found on Saturday near the Danube in the northern Bulgarian town of Ruse. She had been raped and strangled.

Prosecutors in the city of Celle, who are handling the case in Germany, said the suspect confessed to them during his interrogation that he had attacked the reporter in a park while he was under the “strong influence of alcohol and drugs”.

They said he told them he had got into an argument with a woman he did not know, hit her in the face and threw her into bushes.

“He denied intending to kill her and also denies raping and robbing the woman,” Celle prosecutors said.

Marinova hosted a show last month featuring two investigative journalists who were detained for their work on suspected fraud involving EU funds.

While Marinova did not appear to have been closely involved in the fraud investigation, her show touched on a sensitive subject in Bulgaria, where corruption is endemic, and there was widespread speculation that she may have been targeted for her work as a reporter.

Prosecutors said in their statement, however, that based on their questioning of the suspect, “a political background [to the crime] cannot be drawn from his confession”.

Celle prosecutors also approved his extradition to Bulgaria, which they said will take place within the next 10 days.


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« Reply #3811 on: Oct 12, 2018, 04:37 AM »


'It's for my daughter's memory': the Indian village where every girl's life is celebrated

Grief-stricken after his daughter’s death, the chief of Piplantri village declared that every newborn girl would have a tree planted in her honour. In the process, he sowed the seeds of cultural, environmental and political revolution

Amrit Dhillon in Piplantri, Rajasthan
Guardian
12 Oct 2018 06.00 BST

Shyam Sunder Paliwal knows his way through the trees. Pushing through low branches, he reaches a shady copse where a profusion of different varieties grow. Every evening, he comes here on his motorbike to see one tree in particular, a burflower – kadam in Hindi – that symbolises sublime love. In the silence of the copse, he wraps both arms tightly around the slender trunk and rests his head against it, eyes closed. “This is my daughter’s,” he says.

Kiran, Paliwal’s 16-year-old daughter, died in 2006 – a tragedy he marked by planting the burflower tree. He went on to channel his grief into a mission. “She meant so much to me. How could parents kill a baby girl in the womb?”

He knew what used to happen in Piplantri when a baby girl was born. A family member would push a hard, jagged grain into her mouth. That would generally be enough to start an infection that led to the baby’s death.

But after Kiran’s death, Paliwal, the village chief, vowed there would be no more piteous wailing when a girl child was born. Henceforth, the birth of a baby girl would be celebrated with the planting of trees.

As the “sarpanch” or elected village head, his word and passion carried weight. On the appointed day, every monsoon, new mothers spread red fabric inside a large wicker basket. They lay their baby girls inside and carry them to the spot where the new saplings are to be planted. Since 2006, 101 trees have been planted for each of the 65-70 baby girls born in the village every year.

Piplantri, which is built on a hill, lies on the semi-arid land of Rajsamand district in India’s Rajasthan state. Yet lookdown at the undulating landscape below the village and you will see a carpet of green. It wasn’t always so. “In 2005, the drought was so bad the government had to send us water trains,” Paliwal recalls.

The change began with Kiran’s tree. For Paliwal went far beyond the planting of that one special day. He kept planting trees throughout the year and urged the other villagers to do likewise. They laid pipes to take water to the saplings, dotted all around. A total of 350,000 trees have been planted.

“With this, I’m doing two things: showing joy at the arrival of a daughter and honouring the land where my ancestors lived and died,” says Paliwal.

At the entrance to Piplantri, a large hoarding carries the names of all the girls born over the past year. For Kamla Devi, the hoarding symbolises how Piplantri has changed. With four daughters and no son, she would have been an object of pity some years ago. Now Devi is happy with her family.
The village of Piplantri before and after the planting of trees

“My husband is even happier than I am with our daughters,” she grins. “As long as we educate them, there is nothing a boy can do that they can’t do.”

As a gesture of commitment to the trees, on 15 August Devi’s daughters and the other young women in the village celebrated the festival of “rakhi” – when sisters tie red and gold threads around brothers’ wrists as a token of love – by tying the sacred threads around trees.

Alongside the trees, donations are collected whenever a girl is born so that a sum of 31,000 rupees (£316) can be put aside. With interest, the family has an investment that will match a potential dowry. “It gives the family financial security. In return, they pledge to look after the trees, send her to school, and not marry her off before the legal age of 18,” says Paliwal.

It is a mission that drives him. All day, he is on the go, whizzing around the village on his motorbike, checking girls are in school and saplings are tended, and ensuring the rainwater harvesting that he started is working. In quiet moments, he sits in the shade of the tree nursery, cutting up bottle gourd for the hens to peck.

Paliwal hasn’t succeeded in stopping the marble mining that goes on about a kilometre away, and the rural tranquility is punctuated by sticks of dynamite going off periodically. But his tree planting and rain water harvesting have restored some of the forest cover and wildlife destroyed by the mining.

The Rajasthan government has been trying to tackle female foeticide since the shaming sex ratios recorded in the 2011 census, and has taken inspiration from Paliwal. Piplantri receives a stream of VIPs seeking inspiration from what is happening here, so many that the village has built two air-conditioned rooms for guests.

Dr Pankaj Gaur, the district’s chief medical and health officer, said that Paliwal’s mission to make Piplantri a model village inspired a 2016 government policy of giving staggered benefits throughout a girl’s life.

Under the policy, the family receives 2,500 rupees on her birth and the same amount on her first birthday. This is doubled to 5,000 rupees if she finishes class five and class eight. When girls finish class 12, they get 35,000 rupees, making an overall total of 50,000 rupees. “These benefits stop a girl being seen as a liability,” says Gaur.

And Piplantri has not stopped at trees. After his wife was told by a traditional doctor that she could cure her chronic back problems by drinking aloe vera juice, Paliwal went on a planting spree of the succulent. Originally for his wife’s use, Paliwal realised that aloe vera also kept termites away from nearby trees and went about planting with even more of a vengeance.

“Later, it dawned on me that aloe vera could be a source of livelihood for the women – the widows and unmarried women with no income and the women whose husbands had migrated to the cities for work,” he says.

After training, the women now make and market aloe vera gel, juice and pickle. Some earn up to 6,000 rupees a month.

“For me, everything is linked: the girl child, the land, water, animals, birds, trees. I seek immortality through these trees,” says Paliwal.

Asked about the source of his energy, Paliwal looks sad. “Whatever I do is for my daughter’s memory.”


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« Reply #3812 on: Oct 12, 2018, 04:40 AM »

Sexism, racism drive more black women to run for office in both Brazil and US

The Conversation
12 Oct 2018 at 06:47 ET                   

Motivated in part by President Donald Trump’s disparaging remarks about women and the numerous claims that he committed sexual assault, American women are running for state and national office in historic numbers. At least 255 women are on the ballot as major party congressional candidates in the November general election.

The surge includes a record number of women of color, many of whom say their candidacies reflect a personal concern about America’s increasingly hostile, even violent, racial dynamics. In addition to the 59 black female congressional candidates, Georgia’s Stacey Abrams hopes to become her state’s first black governor.

The U.S. is not the only place where the advance of racism and misogyny in politics has has spurred black women to run for office at unprecedented levels.

In Brazil, a record 1,237 black women will be on the ballot this Sunday in the country’s Oct. 7 general election.

Brazilian women rise up

I’m a scholar of black feminism in the Americas, so I have been closely watching Brazil’s 2018 campaign season – which has been marked by controversy around race and gender – for parallels with the United States.

Last weekend, hundreds of thousands of Brazilian women marched nationwide against the far-right presidential frontrunner Jair Bolsonaro, under the banner of #EleNao – #NotHim.

Bolsonaro, a pro-gun, anti-abortion congressman with strong evangelical backing, once told a fellow congressional representative that she “didn’t deserve to be raped” because she was “terrible and ugly.”

Bolsonaro has seen a boost in the polls since he was stabbed at a campaign rally on Sept. 8 in a politically motivated attack.

Brazil has shifted rightward since 2016, when the left-leaning female president Dilma Rousseff was ousted in a partisan impeachment process that many progressives regard as a political coup.

Her successor, then-Vice President Michel Temer, quickly passed an austerity budget that reversed many progressive policies enacted under Rousseff and her predecessor, Workers Party founder Luís Inácio “Lula” da Silva.

The move decimated funding for agencies and laws that protect women, people of color and the very poor.

Racism in Brazil

In Brazil, these three categories – women, people of color and the very poor – tend to overlap.

Brazil, which has more people of African descent than most African nations, was the largest slaveholding society in the Americas. Over 4 million enslaved Africans were forcibly taken to the country between 1530 and 1888.

Brazil’s political, social and economic dynamics still reflect this history.

Though Brazil has long considered itself colorblind, black and indigenous Brazilians are poorer than their white compatriots. Black women also experience sexual violence at much higher rates than white women – a centuries-old abuse of power that dates back to slavery.

Afro-Brazilians – who make up just over half of Brazil’s 200 million people, according to the 2010 census – are also underrepresented in Brazilian politics, though sources disagree on exactly how few black Brazilians hold public office.

Three Afro-Brazilians serve in the Senate, including one woman. In the 513-member lower Chamber of Deputies, about 20 percent identify as black or brown. Women of color hold around 1 percent of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.

Black women step into the fray

That could change on Sunday.

This year, 9,204 of the 27,208 people running for office across Brazil are women, which reflects a law requiring political parties to nominate at least 30 percent women. About 13 percent of female candidates in 2018 are Afro-Brazilian.

In most Brazilian states, that’s a marked increase over Brazil’s last general election, in 2014, according to the online publication Congresso em Foco.

In São Paulo, Brazil’s most populous state, 105 black women ran for office in 2014. This year, 166 are. In Bahia state, there are 106 black female candidates for political office, versus 59 in 2014. The number has likewise doubled in Minas Gerais, from 51 in 2014 to 105 this year.

As in the United States, Brazil’s black wave may be a direct response to alarming social trends, including sharp rises in gang violence and police brutality, both of which disproportionately affect black communities.

But many female candidates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’s second largest city, say one specific event inspired them to run.

In March, Marielle Franco, an Afro-Brazilian human rights activist and Rio de Janeiro city councilwoman, was assassinated – the 11th Brazilian activist to be murdered since November 2017.

Franco’s murder remains unsolved, but she was an outspoken critic of the military occupation of Rio’s poor, mostly black favela neighborhoods. The ongoing police investigation has implicated government agents in the shooting, which also killed her driver.

Her death unleashed an avalanche of activism among black women in Rio de Janeiro, with new groups offering fundraising and political training for female candidates of color.

On Sunday, 231 black women from Rio de Janeiro state will stand for election in local, state and federal races – more than any other state in Brazil and more than double the number who ran in 2014.
Black representation from Rio to Atlanta

Black women may have been historically excluded from Brazil’s formal political arena, but they have been a driving force for social and political change since the country’s transition from dictatorship to democracy in 1985.

Decades before #MeToo, Brazilian women of color were on the front lines of activism around issues like gender-based violence, sexual harassment and abortion.

Brazil has hundreds of black women’s groups. Some, including Geledes, a center for public policy, are mainstays of the Brazilian human rights movement. The founder of the Rio de Janeiro anti-racism group Criola, Jurema Werneck, is now the director of Amnesty International in Brazil.

The fact that thousands of black women, both veteran activists and political newcomers, will appear on the ballot on Sunday is testament to their efforts.

As in the United States, black Brazilian women’s demand for political representation is deeply personal. They have watched as their mostly male and conservative-dominated congresses chipped away at hard-won protections for women and people of color in recent years, exposing the fragility of previous decades’ progress on race and gender.

Black women in Brazil and the U.S. know that full democracy hinges on full participation. By entering into politics, they hope to foster more inclusive and equitable societies for all.The Conversation

Kia Lilly Caldwell, Professor, African, African American, and Diaspora Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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« Reply #3813 on: Oct 12, 2018, 04:44 AM »


Recordings prove Jamal Khashoggi was killed, Turkish investigators claim

Sources say audio and video evidence show journalist died at Saudi consulate in Istanbul

Bethan McKernan, Middle East and Turkey correspondent
Guardian
Fri 12 Oct 2018 09.46 BST

Turkish investigators have claimed video and audio recordings exist that prove Jamal Khashoggi was killed, a sign that Ankara is willing to keep up the pressure on Riyadh to back up its claims it has nothing to do with the dissident journalist’s disappearance.

US government officials told the Washington Post late on Thursday that their Turkish counterparts claimed the recordings from 2 October prove Khashoggi was murdered and his body dismembered during a visit to the Saudi consulate in Istanbul to pick up marriage paperwork.

The alleged audio evidence – which Turkish sources have also suggested exists in comments to the Guardian – is particularly strong, officials said.

“You can hear his voice and the voices of men speaking Arabic,” a source told the Washington Post. “You can hear how he was interrogated, tortured and then murdered.”

While US officials said the contents of the supposed tapes had been described to them, it was not clear whether they had seen or listened to the recordings themselves.

Admitting the existence of any planted listening or video devices is a difficult balancing act for the Turks, who are wary of revealing any efforts or methods used to spy on foreign operations inside the country, and are also at pains to maintain a delicate political and trade relationship with Riyadh.

Saudi Arabia has vehemently denied all allegations it was involved in the journalist’s disappearance and says he left the consulate safely shortly after entering it last week.

Late on Thursday, however, it was announced that US investigators would assist a joint Turkish-Saudi investigation into how the 59-year-old vanished.

Riyadh previously said Turkish investigators could search the consulate, which as a diplomatic building is considered sovereign Saudi territory.

However, permission was withdrawn after Turkish media published the names and pictures of an alleged 15-man assassination team captured on CCTV at Istanbul’s Ataturk airport, which included a forensics expert and several Saudi intelligence and military officers.

As well as the six-storey consulate, the investigation is focused on the consul general’s home 200 metres away, where it is believed Khashoggi’s body was disposed of.

Khashoggi, a well-known and respected member of elite Saudi and Washington DC circles, left Saudi Arabia last year after growing fearful for his safety and has since served as a columnist for the Washington Post.

He has criticised Mohammed bin Salman since his appointment as crown prince and de facto ruler of the kingdom in 2017.

It was reported by the Washington Post on Wednesday that US intelligence officials were aware of a plan to lure Khashoggi back to Saudi Arabia and detain him.


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« Reply #3814 on: Oct 12, 2018, 04:46 AM »


'Flowering of hate': bitter election brings wave of political violence to Brazil

Supporters of presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro, who is leading in polls, have attacked journalists and activists

Dom Phillips in Rio de Janeiro
Guardian
Fri 12 Oct 2018 07.00 BST

The two contenders in Brazil’s bitterly-contested presidential race have urged calm after a wave of attacks on journalists, activists and members of the LGBT community by supporters of far-right candidate Jair Bolsonaro including beatings, a knife attack and a murder.

Supporters of the former paratrooper – himself the victim of a botched assassination attempt last month – have also reportedly been targeted with violence.

But an investigation by independent journalism group Agência Publica found that an overwhelming majority of the violence was committed by supporters of Bolsonaro, who polls give a 16-point lead over his leftist opponent, Fernando Haddad, ahead of the second round runoff on 28 October.

Agência Pública said bolsonaristas were behind 50 separate attacks since 30 September. In the same period, six Bolsonaro supporters were assaulted, the report found.

“There is a flowering of hate that I have never seen before,” said a reporter who was attacked by Bolsonaro supporters in the north-eastern city of Recife. “I am frightened because it could be anyone now.”

Voter frustration over spiraling violence and eye-watering corruption – as well as an explosion of inflammatory fake news – mean an unusually toxic atmosphere has enveloped this year’s election.

Activists say that online threats have soared since campaigning begin, while videos of soccer fans chanting “Bolsonaro will kill queers” have spread terror among LGBT people.

Several attacks were reported on Sunday, when Bolsonaro secured his resounding victory in the election’s first round.

The 40-year-old female reporter was assaulted at knife point as as she went to vote, when two Bolsonaro supporters spotted the journalist’s credentials hanging from her neck.

One of the men, who was waving a knife and wearing a T-shirt emblazoned with the candidate’s face, grabbed her arm and told her: “When my commander wins the election you lot in the press will die.”

“The other one said, ‘Let’s take her off and rape her,’ and the one with the knife, said, ‘No, ‘Let’s cut her,’” said the journalist, who asked to withhold her name because she received threats after reporting the attack.

She was scratched with the knife across her face and arms, before the two men ran off when a passing motorist blasted her horn.

Hours later, in the coastal city of Salvador, Romualdo da Costa, 63, a master in the Afro-Brazilian martial art of capoeira, was stabbed to death after a row over politics, police said.

Da Costa had said he voted for Haddad while the man who stabbed him declared support for Bolsonaro, BBC Brasil reported.

Bolsonaro shrugged off the attacks. “A guy with my T-shirt goes too far. What has that got to do with me?” he told reporters on Wednesday. “I am not in control of the millions and millions of people who support me. The violence comes from the other side.”

Later he changed tack, tweeting that he did not want votes from “those who practice violence against people who don’t vote for me”.

Haddad also condemned the attacks. “We have to put an end to this violence,” he told reporters.

Agência Pública reported that one woman was arrested and left naked in a cell after police in São Paulo caught her spraying the anti-Bolsonaro slogan “Ele Não” (“Not him”) on a wall. Police officers overwhelmingly support Bolsonaro, who has promised to give them more leeway to shoot suspects.

Agência Pública also reported that a university professor in Bahia state was arrested after running over a man selling Bolsonaro T-shirts.

The violent mood has played out on the internet in the form of social media threats, a tsunami of fake news, and an online game featuring a cartoon Bolsonaro who attacks feminists, leftists and political opponents.

Prosecutors have launched an investigation into the game, Bolsomito 2K18, whose description reads: “Defeat the communistic evils in this politically incorrect game and be the hero that will free the nation from misery.”

Fatima Arruda, 36, a black, LGBT Brazilian activist who lives in Germany and has 120,000 followers on her Facebook page, said threats against her have multiplied since the campaign began.

“I’m lucky I don’t live in Brazil. If I was there I think something bad would have happened to me,” she said.

Bolsonaro himself is notorious for repeatedly making homophobic and sexist comments – once saying he would rather a child of his died than turn out gay. Earlier this month he was ordered to pay a £10,000 fine by a Rio court for racist comments about black Brazilians. He is appealing the ruling,

Crisnando Lima, 26, a gay design student in the city of Teresina said he was walking to his local supermarket on Sunday when two men grabbed him and said: “When Bolsonaro wins, we will start beating up gays.”

Brazil’s poisonous political climate was made apparent in March, when Marielle Franco, a gay, black Rio de Janeiro city councilor, was murdered along with her driver, in what investigators believe was a targeted assassination.

A week before the election, two candidates from Bolsonaro’s Social Liberal party, posed grinning with the broken remains of a replica street sign bearing Franco’s name, which had been hung outside Rio’s town hall by her supporters.

The two men were later elected to congress and Rio de Janeiro’s state legislature.

Meanwhile Franco’s sister Anielle, 34, has described how she was threatened by four men last week after picking up her two-year-old daughter from school. “Bullshit leftist,” they screamed at her, “get out of here, feminist.”

She told the Guardian that she had been previously threatened online, but never in person. “There were so many insults I couldn’t remember them all,” she said.


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« Reply #3815 on: Oct 12, 2018, 04:49 AM »

China launches anti-halal campaign in Xinjiang to stop Islam penetrating secular life and fueling ‘extremism’

Reuters
12 Oct 2018 at 08:00 ET                   

The capital of China’s Xinjiang region, home to the mostly Muslim Uighur minority, has launched a campaign against halal products to stop Islam penetrating secular life and fueling “extremism”.

In a meeting on Monday, the Communist Party leaders of Urumqi led cadres to swear an oath to “fight a decisive battle against ‘pan-halalization’,” according to a notice posed on the city’s official WeChat account.

Everyday halal products, like food and toothpaste, must be produced according to Islamic law.

China has been subject to heavy criticism from rights groups and foreign governments amid reports of a punitive crackdown that has seen the detention of as many as 1 million mostly Muslim ethnic Uighurs in Xinjiang.

Beijing has denied it is systematically violating the rights of Xinjiang’s Muslims, saying it is only cracking down on extremism and “splittism” in the region.

The official Global Times said on Wednesday that the “demand that things be halal which cannot really be halal” was fuelling hostility toward religion and allowing Islam to penetrate secular life.

As part of the anti-halal campaign, Ilshat Osman, Urumqi’s ethnically Uighur head prosecutor, penned an essay entitled: “Friend, you do not need to find a halal restaurant specially for me”.

According to the WeChat post government employees should not have any diet problems and work canteens would be changed so that officials could try all kinds of cuisine.

The Urumqi Communist Party leaders also said they would require government officials and party members to firmly believe in Marxism-Leninism, and not religion, and to speak standard Mandarin Chinese in public.

Chinese citizens are theoretically free to practice any religion, but they have been subject to increasing levels of surveillance as the government tries to bring religious worship under stricter state control.

The Communist Party in August issued a revised set of regulations governing its members behavior, threatening punishments or expulsion for anyone who clung to religious beliefs.

Reporting by David Stanway and Christian Shepherd; Editing by Michael Perry

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« Reply #3816 on: Oct 12, 2018, 04:51 AM »


Germany's Greens flourish while mainstream rivals flounder

New Europe
10/12/2018

BERLIN (AP) — While other mainstream political parties in Germany flounder in polls and struggle to answer a far-right challenge, the Greens have gained strength as a magnet for liberal-minded voters.

Offering a compassionate approach to migration, a pro-European Union stance and an emphasis on fighting climate change and protecting biodiversity, the party appears poised for an unprecedented second-place finish in traditionally conservative Bavaria in a state election Sunday. It is polling strongly ahead of an election in neighboring Hesse two weeks later.

Nationally, some recent polls have shown the Greens level with the Social Democrats, traditionally Germany's main center-left party. The Greens have new, dynamic and relatively young leaders, a pragmatic approach that has made them a partner to parties from the center-right to the hard left in nine of Germany's 16 state governments, and clear stances on central issues.

Unlike its mainstream rivals, the party doesn't have to worry much about losing supporters to the far-right Alternative for Germany, or AfD, which entered the national parliament last year and has been the other main beneficiary as the government bogs down in infighting.

"They have settled pretty well into the big niche of higher-earning big city dwellers with global awareness," daily newspaper Sueddeutsche Zeitung wrote in an editorial. The newspaper noted "they have an existential issue in climate protection" and said that they appear to be on the way to replacing the struggling Social Democrats — conservative Chancellor Angela Merkel's junior partners in an unhappy "grand coalition" government of Germany's traditional political heavyweights — as "a new major party."

The Greens' election slogan in Bavaria is "Give courage instead of spreading fear." Party co-leader Robert Habeck recently lamented a "brutalization of political discourse," adding: "We think the only way of answering that is to no longer let ourselves be driven by fear of making mistakes or by fear of AfD."

The Greens were keen to enter government under Merkel last year, although that required difficult compromises with her conservatives and the pro-business Free Democrats, both traditional opponents. The Free Democrats pulled the plug after weeks of talks, but the Greens' willingness to govern appears to have paid off. National polls show their support as high as 18 percent, compared with 8.9 percent in the 2017 election. AfD, which won 12.6 percent last year, is polling at similar levels.

The Greens' current flexibility would have been hard to imagine in 1983 when the Greens, then a protest party with a penchant for beards and sunflowers, first took their seats in the German parliament.

From 1998 to 2005, they governed Germany as the junior coalition partner to Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, a Social Democrat. Joschka Fischer, a one-time left-wing militant and taxi driver, served as a popular foreign minister.

At present, the Greens are benefiting from the weakness of the Social Democrats, their traditional partners. They also partner with Merkel's Christian Democrats in four state governments. Those include southwestern Baden-Wuerttemberg, a traditional conservative stronghold run since 2011 by Green governor Winfried Kretschmann.

Even a coalition with Bavaria's hardline conservatives appears conceivable after the upcoming election Sunday. And, for now at least, there's little sign of long-standing internal tensions between the centrist "realists" who now dominate the leadership and left-wing "fundamentalists."

Manfred Guellner, the head of the Forsa polling agency in Germany, said about half of the party's current supporters are what he calls "new Greens," centrists who don't identify as left-wing in the same way as its traditional base.

"They can be kept if you keep to a pragmatic, rational style of politics," he said. The Greens have seen a polling bubble burst before. Their ratings soared after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, but they emerged from the 2013 national election as the smallest party in parliament.

That followed a poor campaign remembered largely for a debate about the merits of introducing a "veggie day," allowing opponents to label the Greens as politically correct killjoys who would seek to ban everyday pleasures.

"If, like after Fukushima, discussions within the Greens begin again and the 'fundamentalists' gain the upper hand, this could fade away quickly," Guellner said.


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« Reply #3817 on: Oct 12, 2018, 05:12 AM »

WATCH: Expert says Trump likely knew of Saudi plot to kill Washington Post journalist

Bob Brigham
Raw Story
12 Oct 2018 at 09:59 ET  

The famous Watergate era question — ‘what did the president known and when did he know it?’ — is once again a central inquiry in a presidential scandal, according to a panel on MSNBC’s “The Last Word with Lawrence O’Donnell.”

The Thursday evening discussion focused on the latest developments in the disappearance of Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi, suspected of being murdered and dismembered with a bone saw inside Saudi Arabia’s consulate in Turkey.

MSNBC intelligence analyst Malcolm Nance revealed how quickly President Donald Trump would have been alerted if the reporting on U.S. intelligence’s knowledge of the plot is true.

“The chain of information that we’ve seen reported from The Post about the U.S. intelligence knowing — having information about the Saudi’s participation in this or issuing orders on this — we have a system setup so that the President of the United States is informed of [important developments] like that within five minutes,” Nance explained.

“Which means the president would have had to have known about the outlines of this plot and the murder almost instantaneously,” he said.

“What do you think of the available avenues for you to be pursuing on this story as its developing?” O’Donnell asked Shane Harris, an intelligence and national security reporter for The Washington Post.

“Well, I think there’s a big question still here about — to use the old phrase — ‘What did the president know and when did he know it?’ Our previous reporting in the paper this week showed that there were intercepts they had of Saudi officials discussing separate efforts to lure Jamal Khashoggi back to Saudi Arabia, where he would be detained,” Harris replied.

“So if there was information about potential threats to Jamal Khashoggi before he ever went into that consulate, the question then becomes, ‘Who knew about that in the government?'” he said. “And was that ever presented to president?”

“As Malcolm said, there are mechanism to elevate intelligence from the bottom up to the president when people feel he needs to know it, and those are questions we would like to try to answer,” he concluded.

Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G24fAdu-F-I

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WATCH: Nicolle Wallace breaks down why Jared Kushner’s Saudi role represents a ‘national security crisis’ for Trump

Bob Brigham
Raw Story
12 Oct 2018 at 09:59 ET  

MSNBC anchor Nicolle Wallace drew on her past experience as White House communications director to explain the political liability the Trump administration is facing due to senior advisor Jared Kushner’s close relationship with Mohammed bin Salman.

“In a normal White House, the fact that one of the president’s closest allies on the world stage, Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman — known as MBS — reportedly ordered an operation to lure Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi back to Saudi Arabia with a goal of detaining him would be big news,” Wallace noted. “Especially since he hasn’t been seen since he entered the Saudi consulate in Turkey and is believed to be dead.”

“In a normal White House, a president would want to know if his ‘Presidential Daily Brief’ — or PDB — included the signal intelligence reported by the Washington Post that suggests that U.S. intelligence officials knew about the Saudi leader’s desire to detain the Washington Post columnist,” she continued.

“If the president didn’t know, how high up did the intel go? Did the [Director of National Intelligence] know? The director of the CIA?” she asked.

“In a normal White House, the president’s national security team might just want to start a list of all of Jared Kushner’s contacts with the young crown prince of Saudi Arabia, out of concern that the optics alone of the two hubristic young men huddled closely — literally and figuratively — might be damaging if we come to learn the Turkish reports of 15 Saudis flying to Turkey and entering the consulate there to kill and dismember the Washington Post columnist are true and that the administration knew that the Saudi leader intended to detain Khashoggi,” Wallace explained, while rolling tape of MBS and Kushner.

“In a normal White House, that would all count as a full-blown national security crisis,” Wallace concluded. “But this isn’t a normal White House, not even close.”

Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_Bf8C4Jnow

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MSNBC’s Morning Joe hammers Trump for putting personal wealth ahead of US security: ‘He doesn’t give a damn’

Travis Gettys
Raw Story
12 Oct 2018 at 07:21 ET                   

MSNBC’s Joe Scarborough bashed President Donald Trump for unapologetically placing his personal financial interests over U.S. sovereignty — and he said the apparent murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi was one of the clearest examples yet.

The “Morning Joe” host said Trump’s apparent disinterest in punishing Saudi Arabia for the alleged killing of the U.S. resident was directly related to the royal family’s investment in his family business.

“We have a president who doesn’t give a damn about what is in the best interest of this country and our values,” Scarborough said. “He cares about the bottom line.”

Trump has consistently given a free pass to three authoritarian countries — the Philippines, Russia and Saudi Arabia — and Scarborough said the president’s motives were transparent.

“Guess what? There’s a Trump Tower in Manila,” Scarborough said. “Donald Trump and Ivanka always bragged about it. There were pictures all over the Philippines, Manila — so that explains the Philippines, nothing else would.”

“Russia, you’ve got — both of the boys saying they get most of their money, or a lot of their money, from Russia,” Scarborough continued. “Donald Trump sending Michael Cohen over to try to start a Trump Tower in Russia. It’s been an obsession with Donald Trump, getting Russian money has been an obsession with Donald Trump since the 1980s, suckered into shaking the hands of a Mikhail Gorbachev impersonator. He’s made a fool of himself time and time again.”

“Now Saudi Arabia,” he added. “Bragging in 2015 to everybody wearing those caps that Kanye West is wearing now that he makes $40 million, $50 million from the Saudis, he loves the Saudis.”

Scarborough said the president was abusing his office to benefit his family’s fortune, and he said Trump had suckered his supporters.

“It’s all about money, and it’s not about American money, it’s not about American jobs, it’s not about helping out heartland America, helping them pay their bills, having enough money to send their kids to college,” Scarborough said. “It’s about Donald Trump and his billionaire family, and how much money they can siphon from other countries.”

He said the president was willing to let the Saudis get away with murdering and hacking up a Washington Post columnist if they continued showering his real estate and hotel businesses with money.

“Welcome to Donald Trump’s America,” Scarborough said.

Co-host Mika Brzezinski said she was chilled by Trump’s dismissal of Khashoggi’s murder.

“The line that stays with me is, ‘He wasn’t an American citizen, was he?'” she said. “Racist, isolationist, cruel, inhumane, un-American, all in one dog whistle. It’s incredible where we’ve come here with this president.”

Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QgXQHAqyuRw

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Senate Democrat issues dire warning: GOP looking to ‘consolidate power’ and ‘sweep Russia scandal under the rug’

Martin Cizmar
Raw Story
12 Oct 2018 at 09:59 ET  

Republicans have new enthusiasm going into the November midterms, with donors like Sheldon Adelson pouring lots of money into the races.

Massachusetts Democrat Senator Ed Markey went on MSNBC Thursday night where he was asked by host Chris Hayes whether Republicans planned to consolidate power if they win.

Markey said there was “no question” they were.

“Everything is on the table in this election,” he said. “Which is why they’re going back to their biggest donors and asking them to pour tens of millions of dollars more into these races. They’re afraid they’re going to lose, and if they lose, they lose everything.”

Right now, Republicans do whatever they want as a unified government under President Donald Trump. Their only fear is angering voters before this election, he said.

“If they win the president can fire Robert Mueller, Jeff Sessions and Ron Rosenstien and just sweep the entire Russia scandal under the rug,” he said. “Everything is on the table for them.”

Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrghkQTaBK4

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Ex-CIA officer: Trump campaign’s latest legal defense in DNC lawsuit ‘basically screams collusion’

Brad Reed
Raw Story
12 Oct 2018 at 09:59 ET                

Former CIA agent Alex Finley on Thursday admitted that she was “stunned” by the Trump legal team’s latest filing as part of special counsel Robert Mueller’s probe — and she said it indicates there might be stronger evidence of the campaign conspiring with Russia than has been previously disclosed.

In particular, Finley linked to an analysis written in The Guardian of the Trump campaign’s latest filing in a lawsuit related to the illegal 2016 hacking of the Democratic National Committee in which the campaign asserted that WikiLeaks could not be held liable for the release of stolen materials.

The Guardian analysis quotes Ryan Goodman, the former special counsel of the Pentagon, who breaks down why the Trump campaign’s claims about WikiLeaks’ liability do not hold up.

According to Goodman, special counsel Robert Mueller’s recent indictment of Russian hackers established that WikiLeaks played an “active role” in the timing of releasing the stolen DNC emails.

“That fact, which was not known before, could significantly change the calculus as to whether they could claim immunity under the Communications Decency Act [Section 230] because they are no longer playing a passive role,” he explained.

Reacting to Goodman’s analysis, Finley writes on Twitter that it sounds as though the Trump campaign is admitting to some kind of coordination with WikiLeaks.

“This is really stunning considering that WikiLeaks worked on behalf of Russian intel,” she says. “Even the Trump campaign’s legal defense basically screams collusion.”

    This is really stunning considering that WikiLeaks worked on behalf of Russian intel. Even the Trump campaign’s legal defense basically screams collusion. https://t.co/78WomNKn8I

    — Alex Finley (@alexzfinley) October 11, 2018

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Mueller’s Russia investigation is now unstoppable even if Trump fires Rosenstein: Former FBI agent

Tom Boggioni
Raw Story
12 Oct 2018 at 09:59 ET                  

Writing for the Washington Post, a former FBI agent who specialized in counter-intelligence said that special counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation of Russian involvement into Donald Trump’s presidential campaign is virtually unstoppable no matter what the president does to derail it.

According to Asha Rangappa, Trump could very well fire Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein in an effort to slow down the Mueller investigation, but his replacement would be hard pressed to shut down the various avenues FBI agents have already gone down.

“To begin with, there is no such thing as a single ‘Russia investigation.’ The F.B.I. pursues cases against individuals and organizations, not topics — this allows each case to have the flexibility to go in the direction the evidence leads, regardless of what happens with other, related cases,” Rangappa wrote. “After the Sept. 11 attacks, for example, ‘Pentbomb’ was the umbrella name for hundreds of discrete cases on the hijackers, their networks and Al Qaeda.”

Writing “Existing cases spawn new cases. This is especially true of counterintelligence and conspiracy investigations,” she added, “The current Russia investigation, originally referred to in the F.B.I. as ‘Crossfire Hurricane,’ isn’t just a single case on Russian election meddling. Rather, at this stage it is a spider web of tens or dozens of cases on intelligence officers, their agents and individuals and organizations helping Russia that are investigated independently, cross-referencing pertinent information to other cases as necessary.”

Noting that an investigation the size of Mueller’s is not limited to agents working solely out of Washington D.C., but is farmed out to field offices across the country, Rangappa said that agents in those offices would not take kindly to being told to stand down.

“No case agent worth their salt would remain quiet if their cases were closed in the face of a continuing threat,” she wrote. “To ‘shut down’ the investigation at this point would require not just a face-off with Mr. Mueller but also with special agents in charge of multiple field offices with a vested interest in seeing their responsibilities through, and possibly even a battle with the F.B.I. director, Christopher Wray.”

And then there are the elements of the investigation that are already entrenched in the courts — putting them beyond the reach on the Justice Department.

“Many of the most critical parts of the Russia investigation have already entered the judicial system” Rangappa suggested by pointing out Mueller has already indicted numerous individuals related to Trump’s campaign and that there are numerous subpoenas still outstanding.

“Whatever happens now, there is no doubt that the F.B.I. has already collected hundreds of thousands of pages of evidence in the form of documents, interviews, electronic surveillance and foreign intelligence shared by our allies that are stored in the F.B.I.’s tamper-proof system and cannot be destroyed,” she relayed before adding, “If Congress changes hands, it’s going to be very difficult for the president to try to block obvious attempts to obstruct justice from seeing the light of day.”

“The wheels of justice are already in motion, and it would take someone willing to take a fall for the president to try to stop it,” she concluded.

***************

Welcome to the smoldering ruins of American democracy — courtesy of Lindsey 'I love being Trump's drag queen' Graham and Brett Kavanaugh

Andrew O'Hehir, Salon - COMMENTARY
10/12/2018      

What do we know now that we didn’t know before the grotesque carnival of Brett Kavanaugh’s appearance this week before the Senate Judiciary Committee, where we were treated to the spectacle of a supposedly eminent jurist and Supreme Court nominee spitting, weeping, screaming in red-faced rage, indulging in mawkish sentimentality and belligerently refusing to answer questions? Nothing good.

Perhaps the exercise was instructive for many people nonetheless. I found myself startled to conclude, partway through the hallucinatory national ordeal of Thursday’s hearing, that Kavanaugh was right about something, if not precisely in the sense he intended. During his opening monologue — although I think that’s not technically the correct term — Kavanaugh pronounced, “This confirmation process has become a national disgrace.” Who could possibly disagree?

A few minutes later into the judge’s tirade, after he had accused Senate Democrats of staging a last-minute partisan smear campaign to derail his nomination and spoken darkly about “outside left-wing opposition groups” (what does “outside” mean here — outside of what?), Kavanaugh concluded: “This is a circus. The consequences will extend long past my nomination. The consequences will be with us for decades.” Again, full marks, Judge. Or let’s say a solid B-plus. Nice job of acknowledging the obvious.

I felt a similar reaction, even more strongly, to the scene-stealing outburst later in the hearing from Sen. Lindsey 'I love being Trump's drag queen'  Graham of South Carolina, whose personal transformation from staunch defender of the old-line Republican Party faith into Trump-worshiping homunculus is among the more mysterious phenomena of this depraved political era. Early in the 2016 campaign, I once pursued Graham down a school hallway in suburban New Hampshire, trying to get close enough to extract a few one-liners out of him about Donald Trump. I gave my number to one of his aides and, randomly, to one of Jeb Bush’s sons, who both promised Graham would call me. That didn’t happen, and now look.

Graham’s ire on Thursday was of course directed at the alleged Democratic conspiracy to undermine Kavanaugh’s nomination — and by extension the entire Trump presidency — but to my ears his language carried multiple levels of meaning. Graham described the confirmation process as “the most unethical sham since I’ve been in politics,” adding, “I can’t think of a more embarrassing scandal for the United States Senate since the McCarthy hearings.” He ended by warning Republican colleagues that if they oppose Kavanaugh they’ll be “legitimizing the most despicable thing I’ve ever seen in politics.”

As others have noted, it’s pretty rich to get a high-minded lecture about unethical or despicable conduct in politics from the guy who served as House manager of Bill Clinton’s impeachment trial, and whose party over the last 20 years or so has pursued no clear agenda beyond obstruction, negation and outright nihilism. (Cough, cough, Justice Merrick Garland.) Graham’s rhetoric might be more accurate applied to his own side of the Kavanaugh debacle than to the Democrats, who have largely persisted with an (ineffective) politics of coalition-building and compromise. But I’m not arguing that either party is blameless when it comes to our political dysfunction, and that’s not the point.

What struck me on Thursday is that guys like Graham and Kavanaugh, who have pretty much had things exactly the way they wanted them for their entire lives, have finally been forced to notice that American politics fundamentally does not work. Whether or not you read Graham’s tirade as a man-in-the-mirror moment, where he unintentionally revealed himself, he has a point. From any possible point of view, this confirmation — and indeed the entire political ecosystem around it — has become a sham, a circus, an embarrassing scandal and a national disgrace. In an environment where Americans agree about nothing, we can probably agree about that.

I often feel that nothing in the Trump era can be shocking, but Kavanaugh’s Thursday appearance was downright astonishing. The fact that anyone, of any political party, could believe that person (rapist or not) is well suited to be a Supreme Court justice beggars belief. It was like watching Richard Nixon’s “Checkers” speech performed by a minor, doomed character on “Breaking Bad.” Or to use a more apposite reference, it was like getting into a conversation with that guy next to you at the bar who seems affable enough at first but turns out to have a long litany of grievances against women, banks, former bosses, the “liberal media” and the Clintons.

I’m not sure how they’ll manage to mock that episode in a “Saturday Night Live” sketch, since it already was one: Of course I’m not a mean drunk, goddammit! What about you, Ms. Senator Lady? I was afraid Kavanaugh was going to rip his shirt off and invite Sen. Mazie Hirono to punch him in the stomach: “Harder! Come on, harder!” But watch out for the Ralph reaction.

Everyone on the planet has already noted the dramatic contrast between Kavanaugh’s demeanor and that of Christine Blasey Ford, the woman who has accused him of trying to rape her 36 years ago. Despite clearly feeling distressed or overwhelmed by her bizarre moment in the spotlight, Ford remained calm, clear-headed and largely cheerful. She said several times that she wanted to be “helpful” to the committee, which as numerous female commentators have observed (including Salon’s Amanda Marcotte) is a heavily gendered term.

A side note: Would I have noticed that on my own? Probably not. This was one of those occasions when men, especially those of us in the media accustomed to our own freedom to bloviate, were best served trying to listen and learn.

I think the distance between Ford’s manner and Kavanaugh’s can at least partly be separated from the question of which of them is telling the truth. Indeed, I find it entirely plausible that Ford’s account is true and Kavanaugh believes that his denials are true, or has convinced himself they must be. Given the evidence before us, I don’t think a severe personality disorder or chronic, untreated alcoholism, buried under layers of denial, are out of the question.Christine Blasey Ford showed up before that committee out of an earnest desire to help the United States Senate learn the truth about Brett Kavanaugh, and an earnest belief that that was the point of this whole process. Even if we concede that some Democrats saw a political opportunity in her testimony and embraced it — which is deeply shocking, I know — there was no hint of that kind of motive in her personal story or its delivery.

Kavanaugh, on the other hand, showed up brim-full of righteous outrage at the very suggestion that there could be any truth to learn about him that is not obvious on the surface. His air of wounded entitlement and his evident fury that anyone would dare question his integrity reflect a central code of his gender, background and class: Appearance is reality. Men like him are deemed to be exactly what they appear to be (at least by their peers) and any evidence to the contrary is not evidence at all.

In other words, Kavanaugh understood the Senate confirmation process as a sham ritual or reality show, something like the “trials” conducted by Judge Judy, but with less mystery about the outcome. Exactly how Lindsey Graham understands the meaning and purpose of these hearings, in his current, tormented Gríma Wormtongue mode, is a matter for philosophers and psychiatrists to ponder.

Christine Blasey Ford, on the other hand, understood these confirmation hearings in straightforward terms, as a genuine effort to uncover the facts. That may have been naïve, but it also created an important moment of national disruption and national shame whose repercussions, as Kavanaugh said himself, will last for decades. These competing views of constitutional process and political reality came into direct conflict this week, and the result was something like what happens in science fiction when matter encounters antimatter.

It is perhaps a hopeful sign, in the long run, that men of the Kavanaugh-Graham class are at least forced to confront the possibility of facing consequences for their behavior, and also to acknowledge that the political rituals that enshrined and protected their power no longer function as seamlessly as they once did. But the long run could take a very long time indeed, and the pain and disgrace of this moment and others to come will be difficult to bear. America’s political decay continues, and we have not hit bottom yet.


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« Reply #3818 on: Oct 12, 2018, 06:05 AM »


China finally admits it is building a new archipelago of concentration camps. Will the world respond?

By Editorial Board
WA Post
October 12 2018

WHEN REPORTS began filtering out of China last year about a massive indoctrination and internment drive against ethnic Muslim Uighurs in the western region of Xinjiang, the government in Beijing denied that anything was going on. Later, China acknowledged that criminals and people who committed minor offenses might be sent to “vocational education” centers there. Now, the regime has gone a step further, revising a regional law to admit the dark reality: An archipelago of concentration camps has been built.

China has long used harsh penal systems for dissidents and political prisoners. One branch, known as “laojiao,” or “reeducation through labor,” existed outside the regular prison system. People were sent to reeducation by public security agencies without trial or legal procedure; it was widely used for dissidents and petty criminals, according to Adrian Zenz, a lecturer in social research methods at the European School of Culture and Theology, in Korntal, Germany. In 2013, China’s government wisely closed down this system, seeing it as a relic of the past. At the time, Mr. Zenz estimates, it had 350 facilities with about 160,000 people.

Then, in 2017, China began rapidly erecting a “reeducation” system aimed at the restive Uighur population and other Muslim minorities, including Kazakhs. Like the earlier version, the new incarceration system was to be extrajudicial: no due process, no rule of law. According to Mr. Zenz, who has studied it, the scale is huge; there are now more than 1 million Uighurs and others incarcerated, or 11.5 percent of the Uighur population of Xinjiang between ages 20 and 79. There may be as many as 1,200 facilities. In a recent talk at Harvard University’s Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Mr. Zenz described them as bleak, with hardened floors, watchtowers, no trees, high fences and endless hours of “reeducation” to make the Uighurs think like the majority Han Chinese. He pointed out that the intent is not to kill people but to kill the memory of who they are, to wipe out their separate identity, language and history. Even the slightest perceived infraction, such as having a copy of the Koran on a phone or making a contact abroad, can result in incarceration, he said.

A regional law on “de-extremification” was issued in 2017 at the outset of the Xinjiang roundup. But now, Chinese authorities have revised it, and acknowledged the existence of the new gulag, though in opaque language. The goal, the revised law says, is to “carry out de-extremification ideological education, psychological rehabilitation, and behavioral corrections, to promote ideological conversion of those receiving education and training, returning them to society and to their families.” In other words, to brainwash them.

The U.S.-China agenda is admittedly tense over trade, North Korea and the South China Sea. But something as brazen and dangerous as this calls for action. A good start would be for Congress and the administration to demand unfettered international inspections in Xinjiang, and to consider selected sanctions under the Global Magnitsky Act against officials who commit gross human rights abuses — such as wiping out an entire people’s identity.


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« Reply #3819 on: Oct 13, 2018, 05:02 AM »

Researchers find 6,500 genes expressed differently in men and women

ZME
10/13/2018

Men and women might be from the same species, but it sometimes doesn’t look like it. Aside from the obvious physical and psychological differences, there are also more subtle elements. For instance, the way in which we react to drugs and viral infections varies for the two sexes, and this could be a big problem. We’re treating similar health problems in the same way for both men and women but this might not be the wisest thing — which is why researchers are trying to chart out genetic differences. Now, Prof. Shmuel Pietrokovski and Dr. Moran Gershoni of the Weizmann Institute’s Molecular Genetics Department have created the most detailed map of these differences.

6500 genes are expressed differently in men and women. Image credits: Weizmann Institute of Science.

Pietrokovski and Gershoni started with a specific problem: about 15% of couples trying to conceive are defined as infertile, which is quite a lot. However, having a mutation that makes you infertile is the first thing that you’d expect evolution to weed out, because the mutation directly threatens the spread of the population. So why then are these mutations so common? The reason is, researchers argue, that these are sperm mutations which only affect men. A mutation that’s detrimental only to half of the population, no matter how damaging, can be freely passed on to the next generation.

They wanted to see all such genes which manifest differently and might be passed on in the same way, not only relating to fertility. They turned to the GTEx project — a very large study of human gene expression recorded for over 500 adults. They analyzed around 20,000 protein-coding genes, sorting them by sex and looking for differences. They found 6,500 genes which have a bias towards one sex or the other in at least one tissue. For instance, genes for hair growth on the skin were better represented in men (which was expected), while fat storage was also better expressed in women (also expected). But not everything was as evident.

For instance, some genes were only expressed in the left ventricle of the heart in women. Of those genes, one is also related to calcium uptake, so scientists believe it serves as an adaptive mechanism for the onset of menopause. Yet another gene that was mainly expressed in women was active in the brain, but its function is completely unknown.

Researchers also wanted to see to what extend damaging mutations are tolerated or weeded out, and this was pretty unclear. They did see that sexually-biased genes were less likely to be eliminated.

    “The more a gene was specific to one sex, the less selection we saw on the gene. And one more difference: This selection was even weaker with men,” says Gershoni.

The best thing they have to serve as an explanation is a theory of sexual evolution proposed in the 1930s.

    “In many species, females can produce only a limited number of offspring while males can, theoretically, father many more; so the species’ survival will depend on more viable females in the population than males,” explains Pietrokovski. “Thus natural selection can be more ‘lax’ with the genes that are only harmful to males.”

This is the best such map we have so far, but there is still plenty of room to advance our knowledge. We still don’t know exactly why these genes manifest the way they do, and more importantly — what effect they have. With the ascent of personalized medical treatment, studies like this will become more and more important in the future.

    “The basic genome is nearly the same in all of us, but it is utilized differently across the body and among individuals,” says Gershoni. “Thus, when it comes to the differences between the sexes, we see that evolution often works on the level of gene expression.” Pietrokovski adds: “Paradoxically, sex-linked genes are those in which harmful mutations are more likely to be passed down, including those that impair fertility. From this vantage point, men and women undergo different selection pressures and, at least to some extent, human evolution should be viewed as co-evolution. But the study also emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the differences between men and women in the genes that cause disease or respond to treatments.”


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« Reply #3820 on: Oct 13, 2018, 05:03 AM »


'Tipping point': the point of no return for global warming

Climatologists are warning of a series of ‘tipping points’ that could have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth. Their description is more apt than we may realise

Steven Poole
Guardian
12 Oct 2018 01.00 EDT

Scientists this week warned that the latest IPCC report on global warming could be underestimating the impact of “tipping points”, such as the loss of polar ice caps, which might lead to “runaway warming”. A tipping point is the point at which nothing is the same again. The idea became famous with Malcolm Gladwell’s 2000 eponymous book, which informed excited readers that the tipping point of fax machine usage was the year 1987. But what exactly is being tipped?

If you have in mind the image of something toppling over, you are not wrong. In the 1890s, the tipping point was the point beyond which a listing ship could no longer right itself, or the point at which – in a machine proposed to weigh the water of a flowing stream – a cup being filled with water would tilt and transfer its contents to the next cup down.

The metaphorical usage, though, has an unhappier origin. Dictionaries tell us that in the 1950s the tipping point was the number of African Americans moving into a neighbourhood that caused white people to start moving out. Given the coming mass migrations from regions made uninhabitable, that painful echo might prove unexpectedly apt to global warming, too.


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« Reply #3821 on: Oct 13, 2018, 05:06 AM »

Clean energy could make the Sahara green

ZME
10/13/2018

Installing solar and wind power in the Sahara would have benefits for both the region and the world’s grids, a new paper concludes.

The Sahara may be a deserted place, but according to the new study, green energy could also help the desert itself become greener: filling in all that empty space with solar and wind farms would help liven up the place — all while supplying ample green energy. Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UI) found that such installations would increase local precipitation levels, which in turn would lead to increased vegetation.

The paper also reports that such power plants would also increase local temperatures under current conditions. However, this effect would likely be ‘very different’ in the field, due to the shift in vegetation patterns associated with changes in precipitation.
Greening Sahara

    “Previous modeling studies have shown that large-scale wind and solar farms can produce significant climate change at continental scales,” says lead author Yan Li, a postdoctoral researcher in natural resources and environmental sciences at the UI.

    “But the lack of vegetation feedbacks could make the modeled climate impacts very different from their actual behavior.

The team focused on the Sahara for several reasons: for starters, it’s the largest desert in the world. It’s also sparsely inhabited, and “highly sensitive to land changes”, Li explains. Furthermore, its geographical position — in Africa, but fairly close to both Europe and the Middle East — would also make it an ideal place to build plants that cater to these areas’ large (and growing) energy markets.

Li and colleagues simulated the effects of wind and solar farms covering in excess of 9 million square kilometers (roughly 3.5 million sq miles). On average, the simulated wind plants would churn out 3 terawatts, and solar ones 79 terawatts, of electrical power per year. Needless to say, that is a lot of powerplants: global energy demand in 2017 totaled about 18 terawatts, making the team’s scenario a tad overkill.

But what the team really wanted to see was what environmental effects solar and wind installations would have on the desert — as such, they needed to model the plants on a huge scale.

Their work revealed that wind farms do indeed increase near-surface air temperatures. Changes in minimum temperatures were greater than those seen in maximum temperatures, the team adds — i.e. wind farms increase minimum temperatures more than maximum ones.

    “The greater nighttime warming takes place because wind turbines can enhance the vertical mixing and bring down warmer air from above,” the authors wrote.

Precipitation levels also increased by as much as 0.25 millimeters per day on average in regions with wind farm installations. The Sahel region saw the largest increases in average rainfall — 1.12 millimeters per day where wind farms were present.

Overall, the increase in precipitation levels was double “that seen in the control experiments,” Li said. Such levels of precipitation would, in turn, lead to increased vegetation cover, he adds, “creating a positive feedback loop”.

    “The rainfall increase is a consequence of complex land-atmosphere interactions that occur because solar panels and wind turbines create rougher and darker land surfaces,” says study co-author Eugenia Kalnay from the University of Maryland.

Solar farms had a similar effect on temperature and precipitation. Unlike the wind farms, solar installations had almost no effect on wind speeds.

Put together, the changes seen in the team’s model could have a very positive effect on the economic and social well-being in the Sahara, Sahel, Middle East, and other nearby regions, the team writes. The combination of clean (and cheaper) energy and increased rainfall and vegetation would also help boost local agriculture, they add.

The paper “Climate model shows large-scale wind and solar farms in the Sahara increase rain and vegetation” has been published in the journal Nature.


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« Reply #3822 on: Oct 13, 2018, 05:07 AM »

Self assembling nano material brings us tangibly close to water-powered cars

ZME
10/13/2018

Indiana University scientists have built a highly efficient bio-material that can serve as a catalyst for hydrogen production. This material takes us halfway towards the long sought-after “holy grail” of splitting water to make hydrogen and oxygen for fueling cheap and efficient cars that run on water.

Artist’s rendering of P22-Hyd, the new biomaterial created by encapsulating a hydrogen-producing enzyme within a virus shell.

The team started with an enzyme called hydrogenase that can extract pure hydrogen gas out of water. The substance broke down easily however, so they strengthened it by placing it inside the capsid (the protein shell) of a bacterial virus. The new material is now 150 times as efficient than the unaltered enzyme.

    “Essentially, we’ve taken a virus’s ability to self-assemble myriad genetic building blocks and incorporated a very fragile and sensitive enzyme with the remarkable property of taking in protons and spitting out hydrogen gas,” said lead author Trevor Douglas, the Earl Blough Professor of Chemistry in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Chemistry.

    “The end result is a virus-like particle that behaves the same as a highly sophisticated material that catalyzes the production of hydrogen.”

The hydrogenase was produced using genetic material harvested from the common bacteria Escherichia coli, namely the genes hyaA and hyaB. The enzyme was then inserted inside the protective capsid of a virus known as bacteriophage P22,using methods previously developed by IU scientists.

The resulting biomaterial, called “P22-Hyd,” is much more efficient and durable than the enzyme alone, and is obtained through fermentation process at room temperature. P22-Hyd is dirt cheap (fermentation is free) and more environmentally friendly than materials currently used for fuel cells. The authors compare it to platinum, the most commonly used hydrogen catalyst today.

    “This material is comparable to platinum, except it’s truly renewable,” Douglas said.

    “You don’t need to mine it; you can create it at room temperature on a massive scale using fermentation technology; it’s biodegradable. It’s a very green process to make a very high-end sustainable material.”

As a bonus, P22-Hyd both breaks the chemical bonds of water to create hydrogen and also works in reverse to recombine hydrogen and oxygen to generate power.

    “The reaction runs both ways — it can be used either as a hydrogen production catalyst or as a fuel cell catalyst,” he added.

Out of three naturally ocuring forms of hydrogenase, the team chose to use nickel-iron (NiFe)-hydrogenase — the others being di-iron (FeFe)- and iron-only (Fe-only)-hydrogenase. This form was preferred due to its ability to easily integrate into biomaterials and tolerate exposure to oxygen.
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Unaltered NiFe-hydrogenase is highly susceptible to destruction from chemicals in the environment and breaks down at room temperatures — a poor choice for fuel cells. Encapsulation allows it much greater chemical resistance and enables it to catalyze at temperatures exceeding “comfortable,” permitting its use in manufacturing and commercial products such as cars.

    “These shortcomings are some of the key reasons enzymes haven’t previously lived up to their promise in technology,” Douglas added.

Another is their difficulty to produce.

    “No one’s ever had a way to create a large enough amount of this hydrogenase despite its incredible potential for biofuel production. But now we’ve got a method to stabilize and produce high quantities of the material — and enormous increases in efficiency.”

Seung-Wuk Lee, professor of bioengineering at the University of California-Berkeley, whose work has been cited in a U.S. Congressional report on the use of viruses in manufacturing and unaffiliated with the study, applauds the team’s work, saying:

    “Douglas’ group has been leading protein- or virus-based nanomaterial development for the last two decades. This is a new pioneering work to produce green and clean fuels to tackle the real-world energy problem that we face today and make an immediate impact in our life in the near future.”

Beyond the new study, Douglas and his colleagues continue to craft P22-Hyd into an ideal ingredient for hydrogen power by investigating ways to activate a catalytic reaction with sunlight, as opposed to introducing elections using laboratory methods.

    “Incorporating this material into a solar-powered system is the next step,” Douglas concluded.


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« Reply #3823 on: Oct 13, 2018, 05:11 AM »


'We need some fire': climate change activists issue call to arms for voters

Campaigners say more than 15m people who care about the environment did not vote in the 2014 midterms – can they create a ‘green wave’ this November?

Oliver Milman in New York
Guardian
13 Oct 2018 06.00 BST

Among the motivating issues for voters in US elections, the environment is typically eclipsed by topics such as healthcare, the economy and guns. But the upcoming midterms could, belatedly, see a stirring of a slumbering green giant.

“The environmental movement doesn’t have a persuasion problem, it has a turnout problem,” said Nathaniel Stinnett, the founder of the Environmental Voter Project, which is aiming to spur people who care about the natural world and climate change to the ballot box. “This group has more power than it realizes. In the midterms we want to flood the zone with environmentalists.”

Any such voting surge would go some way to heeding the increasingly urgent warnings from scientists about climate change. A major UN climate report released this week said the world risks worsening floods, droughts, species loss and poverty without “rapid and far-reaching transitions” to energy, transport and land use.

“We show it can be done within laws of physics and chemistry,” said Jim Skea, a coauthor of the exhaustive report. “The final tick box is political will. We cannot answer that.”

An obstacle in the US is the large pool of environmental voters who don’t actually vote, according to public records and polls analyzed by the Environmental Voter Project. It estimates more than 15 million people who rank the environment as a top tier issue didn’t vote in the 2014 midterms. Since its creation in 2015, the voter project claims it has increased turnout of target voters by as much as 4.5% in elections.

In 2018, it is aiming to reach 2.4 million of these voters across six states as part of a turnout effort that could help swing some key races. An army of 1,800 volunteers will knock on doors, fire off text messages, make calls and send mailouts. The “punchline” of the Environmental Voter Project, Stinnett said, is that it doesn’t talk to voters about the environment at all. It simply tries to get them out to vote.

“We are already targeting people who care about the environment, all we want to do is get them to vote on election day,” he said. “Peer and social pressure are the best ways – we will send someone a letter saying ‘did you know 93 people in your building turned out to vote last time?’ We play to societal norms and expectations.

“Our focus isn’t to change the outcome of particular elections but there’s no doubt the number of non-voting environmentalists in some districts is so large that they will have an impact. We need to hold politicians’ feet to the fire on the environment, but first of all we need some fire.”

Americans of voting age who care strongly about the environment have been unusually reticent to make their voice heard, for reasons that are still unclear. Stinnett said demographics are part of it – the young, Latinos and black people are simultaneously most worried about climate change and least likely to vote – but this doesn’t explain the full story.

“It’s hard to figure out why,” he said. “Even among young people, for example, environmentalists are less likely to vote. The environmental movement has done a lot of things to change the way we eat, travel and work, but it hasn’t flexed its political muscles yet.

    Look at the NRA. Their power isn’t in the amount of money they spend – it’s because if you care about gun rights, you vote like it’s your job. Politicians know that and they are in the business of collecting votes. Why would they spend time on an issue that doesn’t appear to energize voters?”

Beyond disasters such as hurricanes and wildfires, most politicians and the media, particularly broadcast news, rarely dwell for long on environmental matters. In 2017, the costliest year on record for climate-related disasters, a total of just 260 minutes coverage of climate change was broadcast across the six major TV networks, according to one analysis.

A year prior, no questions on climate change were put to Donald Trump or Hillary Clinton during three presidential debates. Trump has subsequently ignored the issue in office, save the odd disparaging tweet, while overseeing an administration that has systematically dismantled climate, air and water pollution regulations.

At first glance, the evidence suggests there will be only a mild voter backlash to this agenda. Voters asked recently by Yale to rank 28 issues placed global warming 15th, behind areas like tax reform, immigration, terrorism, healthcare and the economy.

The partisan split is stark, however – while liberal Democrats place global warming fourth out of 28, conservative Republicans rank it dead last. “The issue has become more polarized than abortion in terms of voting priorities,” said Anthony Leiserowitz, the director of the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication. “The most important factor in belief in climate science is political ideology.

“It is remarkable that the base of one of the two major parties in the US lists climate change as a top four issue. You wouldn’t have seen that five years ago. But those numbers drop among conservative Democrats and so candidates are afraid to touch it when reaching to the middle. And among conservative Republicans, the issue is just toxic.”

In a few close midterm races, this split is evident. In Pennsylvania’s redrawn 10th district, for example, Democrat George Scott, a former soldier and pastor, is up against incumbent Scott Perry.

While Scott has said there is an “obligation to our children and grandchildren to take immediate action” on climate change, Perry has done little on the issue other than to attempt to prevent the Pentagon from doing anything related to climate change and seemingly blame God for pollution in Chesapeake Bay. The Environmental Voter Project is targeting 31,292 seldom-voting and non-voting environmentalists in Perry’s district ahead of the election.

“This is Trump country and the environment and climate change isn’t a top issue here,” said Alex Bishop, a registered Republican who works in marketing for a tech company. Bishop lives in York, a city in southern Pennsylvania that is a key urban hub in the 10th district, and is involved in outreach to fellow conservatives on climate change.

    “Even saying ‘climate change’ sets off red flags here so it’s better to connect climate change with other issues, such as immigration or the military protecting fossil fuels. I would say it’s gone from ‘it’s all a hoax’ to ‘maybe something is going on.’ It doesn’t sound like much progress, but it’s slowly turning.”

The divisiveness of climate change can be separated from broader environmental concerns over the health of the air, water and landscapes. In Yale’s poll “environmental protection” ranks as a top 10 issue for Democrats and is number 11 for moderate Republicans, a group Leiserowitz describes as comprising roughly a third of the party that follows in the Teddy Roosevelt tradition of fondness for public lands and wildlife stewardship.

But in a new political landscape where energizing a core of voters is edging out the desire to reach a diminishing middle ground, climate change is vigorously debated by both sides only during Democratic primary races.

This partisan relationship has shown up in Yale’s polling of Republicans. In the two years before the election of Trump in 2016, belief that climate change is happening increased 19% among Republican voters, only to crash once the new president made clear his disdain for climate science and decided to pull the US from the Paris climate agreement.

Taken in aggregate, Americans’ belief that climate change is occurring is gradually strengthening, now standing at around seven in 10 voters. Policies to address climate change enjoy surprisingly hefty support – Yale found 85% of Americans support more funding for renewable energy research, 77% want carbon dioxide regulated as a pollutant and nearly seven in 10 want fossil fuel companies to pay a carbon tax.

A further 70% of those polled believe environmental protection is more important than economic growth – evidence, perhaps, that the huge swaths of political rhetoric about taxes and jobs is severely out of kilter with the public.

“The link between events like hurricanes and climate change is emerging as an idea in Americans’ minds, even as they are swamped by partisanship,” said Leiserowitz.

“It’s conceivable climate change will swing future elections but it’s also conceivable we will continue to ignore the issue. After all, it gets almost no ink in the media, so how can we expect people to think it’s important?”


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« Reply #3824 on: Oct 13, 2018, 05:21 AM »


Karen White: how 'manipulative' transgender inmate attacked again

Former neighbours describe 52-year-old as volatile and violent amid questions over placement in women’s prison

Nazia Parveen North of England correspondent
13 Oct 2018 17.30 BST
Guardian

Transgender politics – like any politics – can be divisive. Yet in the case of Karen White, who is legally still a man but was put in a female-only prison, both sides of the transgender rights debate are united in the belief mistakes were made.

White entered the UK prison system as transgender. However, despite dressing as a woman, the 52-year-old had not undergone any surgery and was still legally a male. She was also a convicted paedophile and on remand for grievous bodily harm, burglary, multiple rapes and other sexual offences against women.

In September last year she was transferred to New Hall prison in West Yorkshire. During a three-month period at the female prison she sexually assaulted two other inmates.

The decision to move White to a women’s prison was made public after she admitted in court to the sexual assault and to multiple rapes committed before she was sent to prison.

Those who met White were shocked that she was moved to a female prison, describing the convicted sex offender as “manipulative and controlling”, and questioned her commitment to her transition. The Ministry of Justice has since apologised for the placement.

For now, White is being held at HM Prison Leeds, a category B men’s prison, and is undergoing gender reassignment surgery.

Jenny-Anne Bishop, from the transgender rights group Transforum, said a local transgender case board made up of prison managers and psychologists decides where to place prisoners such as White within three days of a prisoner being taken into custody.

The board allows the prisoner to make representations, and considers any risks and whether the individual has been living in the gender with which they identify.

If this board’s decision is challenged, a local review board reconsiders the evidence. Finally, a “complex case board” can be set up to handle cases involving those aged 21 and under and for those at risk of causing harm to themselves or others.

It is believed the decision to place White in a women’s prison was made only at the first level – by a local case board. Bishop says the board should have taken into account all offending history but failed to do so.

Bishop, who met White at a Transforum support group meeting in Manchester about five years ago, said: “When I met her she was at the beginning of her transition. But I felt that she was someone who didn’t listen to any advice.

“She seemed like somebody who was very much going to plough her own furrow regardless of the community advice, and she was going to demand her rights. She insisted people referred to her in her acquired gender without trying terribly hard to present as a woman.

“She would report people for a hate crime if they stumbled over which name to use for her – it was not a way to get yourself absorbed into the community. She was a person who would not compromise.”

Bishop said that over the years she had met thousands of trans people but White stood out. “I did feel she was someone not to mess with. Other members of the community said she had a very short temper. I did get the impression that she needed to go on an anger management course,” she added.

Before entering the prison system White was living in a social housing complex in the village of Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire. Previously known as David Thompson, within a fortnight of moving in she had asked to be known as Karen White.

Residents said over a three-year period she presided over a reign of terror, physically and verbally abusing others, with some residents having to move away. All wanted to remain anonymous, for fear of reprisals.

One of the residents said White was initially “charming” but over time she became “incredibly aggressive” and residents feared for their safety. She said White was controlling and threatened to report many for hate crimes.

“We did not have a problem with her being transgender. We already had another transgender woman living here and we all got on just fine,” the woman said. “She was always calling the police accusing us of hate crimes against her. And then she started getting violent – it was a terrifying time for all of us – we wish she had never been placed here.”

The final straw came when White repeatedly stabbed an elderly male resident in his own home, claiming the pensioner had sexually assaulted her. The man said: “She just went for me – it was completely out of the blue. I still feel scared in my own home.”

The man staggered into another resident’s flat, the police were called and White was finally removed.

Born in July 1966 as Stephen Terence Wood, the former Manchester drag artist was convicted in 2001 on two charges of indecent assault and gross indecency with a child of primary school age, and jailed for 18 months.

While in prison, she changed her name to David Thompson.

White’s arrest for that stabbing and a burglary in 2017 came just as the Ministry of Justice updated its policy “on the care and management of transgender prisoners” after the death of two trans prisoners in male prisons.

The new 60-page policy introduced in January 2017 emphasised the right of prisoners to “self-identify” and to be treated “according to the gender in which they identify”. Previously, prisoners requiring such treatment would have needed a Gender Recognition Certificate (GRC) or to have had a medical diagnosis of gender dysphoria.

Citing article 8 of the European convention on human rights, the new policy allowed those who did not have the GRC and who identified as a different gender to their biological sex to be located “in the part of the estate consistent with the gender they identify with”.


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